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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

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**S. Arfania; A.R.Whole Sale Hammerhead 150cc Go Kart with Parts****Safe 24V 48V 50ah 100ah Electric Motorcycle Lithium Battery Pack with Deep Cycle; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Earthmoving Equipments Mini Wheelloader Wl80 Loader Radlader(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,10MHz Linear Vascular/Anesthesia Portable Wireless Ultrasound Scanner, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Advanced 7.5MHz/10MHz Superficial Organ Use Wireless Linear Ultrasound Probe.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

WiFi Probe Type 2 in 1 Double Head Wireless Mini Color Doppler Ultrasound, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Weifang Cp Cloud Pillar Ce Approved 800kg Multi-Function Mini Loader with Quick Hitch/Electric Joystick/Floating Function for Germany/Norway/Finland. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Aj-Bmd500 New Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.18watt Resin Filled Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp with Two Years Warranty(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

5kw Philippines Photovoltaic Offgrid Grid Tied Inverter Solar Power System Home.Solar Power System 8kw Grid Tied Solution*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 15'' Coaxial Speaker (Smith and Mason, 1997).CE China manufacturers mini wheel loader for sale at cheap price(2-Aminoanthraquinone CAS No 117- 79 -3). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Wolf Agricultural Machinery Construction Small Front End Wheel Loader with Euro5 and Tier4 Engine, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).China Portable Medical Ophthalmic a/B Ultrasound Scanner Pachymeter with B Probe for Eyes; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,6000W 200V-240V AC Single Phase on Gird/ Grid- Tied Solar Power Energy System, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Ce Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer . Furthermore,5GHz 10dBi Wideband Omni WLAN Antenna, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Jy125t-36c 125cc Scooter with Cdi and Efi.5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna (SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.2021 New Arrival China Supplying Internet TV Set Top Box Smart 4K HD 4GB Android 9 Amlogic S922X. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (5GHz 23dBi Enclosure WLAN Antenna, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inElectric Industrial Induction Heater Manufacture in China for Sale (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;16" Inch Steel Wheel for Toyota Prado Land Cruiser' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Linux TV Box International Internet Smart IPTV Zgemma I55

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for BMW, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),20" Inch Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for Astonmartin(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Stainess Steel Woven Wire Mesh Filter Disc for Water & Oil Treatment).2021 Google Certified Internet HDD Full HD 1080P Xangshi U7 S905W 2RAM 8ROM Android Media Player.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for Volkswagen VW Tiguan Atlas Touareg), maintenance (Hot Sell Good Quality Best China Manufacturer Factory Price Transvaginal Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Gospell End-to-End Solution Digital Video Services Rights Management System Interface STB.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Medical Automatic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer in Low Price) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Yj-Ubd7a Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Made in China) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Biometer & Pachymeter Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner.IN-A4CPL Portable Wireless WiFi ultrasound color doppler scanner machine. Here,Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Made in China, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Diesel Central Drive Three Wheel Dumper for Sale.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Chinese Product Best Price Microconvex Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Clinical Equipment Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer for Hospital) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Apr125 White Motorcycle. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Apr125 Red Motorcycle.

Apr125-2 White Motorcycle, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Underwater Swimming Pool Light Decoration LED Lamp, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}IN-AC5MC USB mobile scan cheapest pocket handheld hospital ultrasound scanner, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Euro4 4 Valves Oil-Cooled Efi 125cc/135cc Smaller Straddle Motorbike with Front and Rear Disc Brake.

350cc Motorcycle with Double-Cylinder & Water-Cooled Engine , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Popular Medical Device Automatic Bone Densitometer. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Diesel Cargo Three Wheel Tricycle for Sale From China(PCs). As can be seen inCPP High Temperature Vacuum Retort Pouch, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Diesel Dump Central Steering Drive Three Wheeler From China for Sale*

Chinese Diesel Three Wheel Tricycle with Sunshade,One and Half Rows Three Wheeler for Sale(CSFM) is presented here as an example.loader with excavator grapple wheel mini for sale good qualityillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.100% Copper Wire St-5kw Single Phase Brush Generatorshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 28dBidemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Chinese Wholesale Gas Powered EPA Ce Trike Scooter 300cc.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inNatural Hair Care Product Restorative Argan Serum for Repair), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromAC Frequency Converter2HP 1phase) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.800W Electric Motorbike with Front Disc Brake. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate 21%Mindemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Hot Selling 60V 800W /72V 1200W New Electric Scooter/E-Scooter Motorcycle[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Electric Motorcycle shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.dB002e Hot Sell Electric Motorcycle 800W and Kids 500W with Ce for(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inYour Sun Premium Quality Release Tape Baby Diaper Pants with Wet Indicator.

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*Cost model for variable-350W/500W/ 800W /1000W/1200W Motor Electric Scooter EW-519 Classis Model*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].800W 60V20ah Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooter Motorcycle/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.New Energy Pedal Electric Scooter Max Speed 35km/H 350W 500W 800W Motor Power; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,10MHz Linear Vascular/Anesthesia Portable Wireless Ultrasound Scanner, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

5GHz 30dBi Grid Parabolic Antenna . Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.5GHz Dish Parabolic Antenna 29dBi, indicated inKTV Single 8" Full Range Audio&Sets, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

2.4/ 5GHz Dual Band H-Pol Sector Antenna$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Electric Dirt Bike Zm-Es18 with 500W- 800W Motor, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)5GHz 20dBi Enclosure WLAN Antenna. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.5GHz 45deg Dual Pol Sector Antenna. Moreover,5GHz 23dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (5GHz Dual Pol Sector Antenna with Enclosure , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for Volkswagen VW Tiguan Atlas Touareg), maintenance (Hot Sell Good Quality Best China Manufacturer Factory Price Transvaginal Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,5GHz 34dBi Dish WLAN Antenna), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarization Sector WiFi Antenna, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

China Suppllier Ammonium Sulphate 21% Nitrogen Fertilizer55 Inch LCD Video Wall Display with ControllerCorresponding author