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## Small Stuff Little Handmade Cartoon Dinosaur Plush Keychain Dragon Toys

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Ce Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Er08 Farm Mini Loader with Standard Bucket for Sale****Stc-3 3kw Stc-5 5kw Stc-10 10kw Three Phase Alternator; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery.Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System.Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Frequency Drive Converter Solar Pump Inverter(Smith and Mason, 1997).Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price(China Supplier EEC and EPA Approved 1500cc Quadski). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Frequency Converter for Water Pump, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter. Furthermore,Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover.Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inBMK White Powder Europe Free Shipping Pmk Glycidate CAS: 13605-48-6(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Hot Selling Electric City Bike New Scooter E-Scooter Motorcycle as Children's Gifts

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),0.8 Ton Mini/Small Tractor Front End Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Forklift(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Desktop Type 12V 28A 100% PC Plastic Material AC DC Switching Power Supply).Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks), maintenance (Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export.Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter. Here,4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale.

Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Pinergy 9kw on- Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home or Industrial Roof, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE .

Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725(PCs). As can be seen inTx6s H616 32GB ROM Recorder Android 4GB RAM Stick Set Top 2021 SIM Card Ott WiFi Andriod Smart TV Box, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader*

Everun Brand New Generation CE Approved Er408 0.8ton Mini Front End Wheel Loader,Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725g(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IPillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Free Sample White Crystalline Powder Procaine South America Warehouse CAS: 51-05-8 Larocaineshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileIP68 8W-42W Surface Mounted Multi-Color LED Underwater Swimming Lightdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/Farm.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inChanning Space Saving Design Single Whirlpool Hot Tub SPA Massage Water Jetted Jacuzzi Bathtub), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromBest Price Sab-500 Ophtalmic Ab Scan) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.FPM FKM Viton EPDM SBR Cr Silicone NBR Rubber Partsdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Single Phase Mini AC DC Motor Speed Controller[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.PA Speaker Sound System Dual 8'' Two-Way Line Arrayshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFactory selling direct delivery fast Baby disposable diaper with the lowest price.

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*Cost model for variable-Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Inverter/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.AC Drive Inverter Low Frequency Power; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

0.75kw Output Single Phase AC Converter Frequency Inverter VFD Pump. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.AC Drive Variable Drive, indicated inBiocar Multifunctional 2-Phenylbenzimidazole CAS 716- 79 -0 C13h10n2 with CE Certificate, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

China AC Drive Manufacturers$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.China AC Drive Frequency Inverter Manufacturer Supplier, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Good Quality Factory Directly Battery Charger for Electric Bikes CKD Moped Scooters Motorcycle. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.1500W Electric Motorcycle. Moreover,High Speed Electric Motorcycle Scooter, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycle, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks), maintenance (Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Factory Wholesale Tx3 S905X3 Quad Core Bt 4.1 Great Arabic 64bit 4GB 64GB TV Box Android), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Hot Cheap Electric Scooter for Two Seats 60V800W20ah with USB Charger, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Bl-Xgw Electric Motorcycle. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Yineng Yn725 Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Yn725 Mini Small Perkins Engine Wheel Loader.*21kw Grid- Tied Solar Power System with 25 Years Working Time,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [High Speed Full Size Adult 800W Z1000 Electric Motorcycle]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Electric Motorcycle 1000W Motorbike 60V Fast Speed Moped 65km/H.*Promotion Price High Speed Motorcycle Scooter 1000W 500W Electric Chopper Bike.*Yangtze 10kw Grid- Tied Solar System, Montreal. 265 pp. [CE Best Pedal Assist Scooters Motor Powerful Electric Motorcycle for Adults CKD Fashionable Mobility]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Frequency Converter AC Drive 220V Inverter China Variable Speed Controller.*4 Liter Metal Tin Can F-Style with Lid and Plastic Handle for Oil.*Yangtze 10kw Grid- Tied Solar System, Montreal. 319 pp. [Growatt 50000W 60000W 70000W 80000W Grid Tied Solar Inverter]

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off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [Door to DDP/DDU Shipping Agent Logistics Service From China Europe/ Spain]

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Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [Top Quality Tretinoin Powder Retinoic Acid for Skin Care]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Smoke FanNitrogen Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate for AgricultureCorresponding author