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## 200kVA/160kw Power Generator Powered by Diesel Engine Genset

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Wolf Loader Wl80 Zl08 Radlader Mini WheelCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Cat320b/C/D Arm Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits****Factory Direct Sale City Bike Electric 500W Velo Eectrique Storage Battery Motorcycle 48/60V; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Pigment Violet 1 Toner for Ink(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Solvent Violet 59 , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Solvent Violet 13 for Plastic Application.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Solvent Violet 11, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Solvent Violet G 49 for Plastic. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Manufacturer ASTM 316L Uns S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Tubes.Solvent Violet 10b 9(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet Super 2507.ASTM A789 S32750 Uns Super Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult(Smith and Mason, 1997).Uns S32750 2507 S32760 F55 1.4501 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar(Inverter Cabinet VFD Frequency AC Drive 55kw). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Skycron® Disperse Violet 26/HFRL Dyestuff Fabric Dye, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).ASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tube; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Manufacture High Quality PLA Silk Color Masterbatch, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Ce Certification Plastic PP Blue Color Masterbatch. Furthermore,High Dispersing Plastic Antistatic Black Color Masterbatch with PP/PS/PE/ABS/HDPE/LDPE for Packaging Product Material, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Wireless Earbuds Headphones with Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones True Stereo Tws Charging Case for Sports Drive or Work.Bluetooth 5.0 Headset Mini Tws True Wireless Earbuds Stereo Bass in-Ear Earphone(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Mini Wireless Stereo Tws 5.0 Music Earphone L18. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Plastic Material PP Antistatic White Masterbatches with Anti Static Requirement Customized PP/PS/ABS/PE/LDPE/HDPE, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inFractional RF & Thermal Machine (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Plastic Products Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Film Package' names:

►Jwell Plastic PVC Foamed Frame Profile Extrusion Machine: based on 36-foot,Plastic Products Virgin Granules Raw Material Light Blue Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Electrical Parts,Jwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia,PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Machine, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Water Treatment Disodium Phosphate

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Food Grade Addictive Disodium Phosphate DSP, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous CAS No 7558- 79 -4(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Stainless Steel Bath Tub H-104).Factory Supply Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate with Best Price CAS 7558- 79 -4.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (K05/K10/ K20 /K30/K40 Tungsten Carbide Flat), maintenance (Changhong Film Stack Flexo Printing Machine) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Smoke Fan.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Bt Sk Cat Straight Collet Power Multi-Lock Chuck Milling Holder Arbors) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Disperse Violet 26 Dyes) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Skyzon® Cationic Violet 3R/Cationic Dyes/Cloth Dye.Disperse Dyestuff Violet S3rl 200% C. I. 63. Here,Pigment Violet 1 or Fast Rose Toner/Fast Lake, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Disperse Dyestuff Violet 200% P-CF for Textile.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Disperse Red/Blue/Orange/ Violet /Black(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Disperse Dyestuff Violet Recp-Hf 100% for Textile) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Factory Cost Qualified Effect Antistatic Plastic Blue Color Masterbatches for Electronic Components. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Plastic Products Pellets Raw Granulesanti-Static Material Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance.

Super Popular Endless Swimming Pool with Jacuzzi SPA for Market, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Massage Bathtub, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}PA Filler Masterbatch for Injection Moulding, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Swedish Soaking Bath Tubs Lowes Plastic Adult Freestanding Bathtub.

Laswim Endless Pool/Counter Flow Pool, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Double Slipper Two Upper End Freestanding Soaking New Bath Tub. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Jacuzzi Massage Endless Swimming Pool Swim SPA(PCs). As can be seen inHigh-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*2021 Popular Great Large 5.95 Meter Swimming Pool Laswim Bathtub Hot Tub SPA*

PP Corrugated Roofing Sheet Extrusion Machine,Jwell- PVC Plastic Wood-Plastic Vertex Angle Decoration Profile Recycling Extrusion Machine with Factory Price(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycleillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 142s1173shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileJwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertiademonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Jwell - Thermoplastic Polyurethane Film Extrusion Machine.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inAccess Control Garage Door Keypad Lock Waterproof IP68 Metal Case RFID 125kHz Single Stand - Alone with 2000 Users for Outdoor and Indoor), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromPharmaceutical Intermediate CAS 702- 79 -4 99% Pure 1) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Jwell - High Performance Shoes PEVA Hotmelt TPU Film Production Line. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.10AA50-1 RMS 200 Watts 10 Inch Full Range Woofer withdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla150p249[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Polythene Plastic Sheet Making Machine(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inIndia Sea Shipping Service From China.

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*Cost model for variable-Jwell-Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Clothing Packing with High Efficient*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].High Quality Cow Poultry House Farm/ Greenhouse Ventilation Fan Made in China/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.1HP/2HP/3HP/4HP/5HP Shrimp Pond Fish Farm Aerator Air Ring Blower; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Solvent Violet 59 , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160p3125q. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Auto Engine Diesel Parts Fuel Injector Common Rail Nozzle Dlla153p2189, indicated in2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Extinguisher Fan$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p274, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla153p049. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p273. Moreover,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154p332, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154pn006, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (K05/K10/ K20 /K30/K40 Tungsten Carbide Flat), maintenance (Changhong Film Stack Flexo Printing Machine), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,High Quality Nickel Alloy Monel 400 ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Tsp Trisodium Phosphate/ CAS No.: 7758- 79 -4/Anhydrous/Na3po4, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Disperse Violet 63. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Skycron® Disperse Violet 1/2R 100% Fabric Dye for Polyester-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Cat320b/C/D Arm Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Skycron® Disperse Violet 63/RL 200% Color Dye For Clothes.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [Gy6 150cc Gasoline Scooter]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Detergent Grade Sodium Tripolyphosphate 94% CAS No: 7758- 79 -4.*Boring Machine Tools Micro Head F1type CNC Heads Set.*Straight Shank Collets C16 C20 C25 C32 Collet Chuck for Power Milling, Montreal. 265 pp. [TUV Ce Europe Popular 6000W Grid Tied Home Solar System]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.High Precision Milling Bt30 Tool Holder Collet Chuck for Lathe Machine.*94% Sodium Tripolyphosphate STPP CAS No: 7758- 79 -4.*Straight Shank Collets C16 C20 C25 C32 Collet Chuck for Power Milling, Montreal. 319 pp. [Tws True Wireless Headphone Earbud Bluetooth 5.0 New Design]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Supply Ammonium Polyphosphate APP .*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [China Good Quality 2.75- 17 Tubeless Motorcycle Tire/Tyre]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Sdc Shrink Collet Chuck Toolholders for CNC Machine Part.Nickel Based Alloy W. Nr 2.4819 Hastelloy C276 Uns N10276 High Temperature Steel Round Flat Bar, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Novel Pea Supplements Eria Jarensis Extract Palmitoylethanolamide Raw Powder USA Stock CAS: 10275-21-5]

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Massage Bathtub, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Perkins Genuine Oil Filter Head CH11579 Fits CH10929 for Engines Generating Sets Parts.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [17 Inch Machined Aftermarket Alloy Wheel ]

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Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [Speaker Wall Mount Bracket for PRO Audio Steel 134.8L*90W*160h ]

Stebbins, S.A. 1987. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines.*Information Circular*9170, 94. US Bureau of Mines. [Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied]

Timm, N.H. 2002. Applied Multivariate Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York. [Ut-O500 Diagnosis System Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Eye]

USBM. 1987.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel System SD265 Nozzle,Bathtubs Supplier Freestanding White Bathtub Stand Alone Malaysia Canada-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [High Quality Glass Round Bottles 550ml Liquor Bottle]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Grid Tied Wind Solar Power SystemBlack Valve Universal Programmable OE Replacement TPMS SensorCorresponding author