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## Multi Plug Extension USB Socket Power Outlet 10A 260W

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Ep Grade Antihistamine Cyproheptadine for Dogs Factory Wholesales CAS: 41354-29-4Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint****Hot Sale Special Cooking Coconut Oil Tin Can Milk Tank Beverage Cans; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,0.8t 800kg Small Loader. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush.350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah.Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Manufacturers Supply Top Quality High Purity Procaine Powder with Best Price CAS: 51-05-8(Smith and Mason, 1997).Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided(Titan Mini Loader 800kg New Front End Radloader with Spare Parts Best Shipping Agent Service). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork. Furthermore,Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab.2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in0.25-1.0mm Hot Sale Natural Red Beech Veneer for Furniture(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter' names:

►10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter: based on 36-foot,3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase,15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter,Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Agricultural LED Work Lamps for Farm Machinery).2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw), maintenance (Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels.Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate. Here,2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers.

Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power.

2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use(PCs). As can be seen inSolar Inverter Pump 15kw, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz*

Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC,Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Yellow Color Plastic Masterbatchillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Donbn Dz- 10 Two Way Full Range Professional KTV Speakershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileSingle 12" Plastic Waterproof Speakerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSuper Cute Cuddly Koala School Bag Kids' Hiking), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from1000ml 500ml 250ml Airtight Glass Water Juice Bottle with Clip Top 1L) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Mini L18 Tws V5.0 Bluetooth Earphone True Wireless Earbuds HiFi Noise Cancellation Stereo Waterproof Headset Hands-Free Earpiecedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Three Phase 380V/ 0.75kw~710kw AC Drive/VFD Speed Controller Frequency Converter/Invertershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inAdd to Comparesharee Cig Wholesale Vape Disposable Electronic Cigarette Shenzhen 300 Puffs.

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*Cost model for variable-Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults. Moreover,1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw), maintenance (Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Cheap Street Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Bit Protect Frame 60V800W-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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