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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Dust Collector Hammer Mill ShakerCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.15kw Grid Tied Solar System****Launch X431 PRO3s+ Hdiii 12V Car/24V Truck Full System Diagnostic Tools Auto OBD OBD2 Code Reader Scanner Pk V PRO Mk808; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar Panel System(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.12kw Grid Tied Complete Set Easy Installation Solar Energy System for Home Use or Industrial.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Grid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supply, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,5kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home Use. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,12kw Grid Tied Solar System.Chinese Frequency AC Drive Pure Sine Wave Inverter Mini Water Pump Motor Controller(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

200cc/300cc Adults Racing Go Kart for Sale Ce Certificate.Water Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Factory Outlet Dog Tag Laser Marking Machine for Metal 50W(Smith and Mason, 1997).0.4kw 0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump(Medical Machine / Multipolar RF Facial Beauty). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Jarol Strong Overload Capacity AC Drive Frequency Inverter , Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).China Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Sporty Electric Scooter , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.SMD3014/2835 AC/DC Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light. Furthermore,30Hz J45 Worldwide Download User Manual for Android Case DDR4 4GB/128GB Octa-Core 2021 Control 4G Internet Set Top TV Box, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Best Selling 4X4 Farm ATV.Cheap Racing Go Kart for Sale 200cc Water Cooled Zyao(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Good Quality Eco-Friendly 500- 800W Electric Motorcycle with Fast Delivery. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Suspension Delivery Chinese 800W Electric Motorcycle Small Long Range Accessories Two Wheels, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inFully Automatic Shrink Wrapping Packing Machine(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Amlogic Chipset S905X2 Quad Core Android8.1 4K Smart Internet TV Box T95q' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Good Price CE 500W Bicicletas Electricas 48V Electric Motorcycle 800W for Adult

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,RGB/White 18W PAR56 LED Swimming Pool Light, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),PAR56 IP68 Waterproof Outdoor Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (4 FT Spindle-Less Wood Peeling Machine for Plywood).PAR56 316ss 18watt LED Underwater Swimming Pool Lights with PC Niche.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (18W Recessed IP68 PAR56 LED swimming Pool Underwater Light), maintenance (18W RGB Underwater LED PAR56 Bulb Light for Swimming Pool Lighting) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Hot Sales ABS Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light 18watt.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (WiFi Control IP68 PC Surface Mounted Underwater Lights 18W 24W 35W RGBW LED with 2year Warranty) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (24watt IP68 Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.The Thinnest Wall Pool Underwater Swimming Light 18 Volts.Rosen 7kw Grid Tied on Solar Panel System. Here,11kw Grid Tied Solar Energy System Industrial Power Supply, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Customized 18mm Carb Birch Okoumen Plywood.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.China Plywood for The Furniture/Construction(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-3-18mm Melamine Plywood/Melamine Board/Fancy Paper Face Plywood for Indoor Use) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Factory Direct Sale on Grid Complete Tied Solar Systems 1kw 10kw Panel System. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Grid Tied Wind Solar Power System.

Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IP, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Ash Solid Wood decoration Board, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}980 50kw on Grid Solar System with Tied Inverter Is Upto 80kw Big Capacity., R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,800ml Square Metal Containers.

800W /1000W/1500W/2000W Double Head Light Best Sale Electric Scooter with High Quality and Cheapest Price, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Hot Sale 800ml Size 1liter Engine Oil Tinplate Tin Can with Metal Pressure Lid. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Hot Sale Metal Round Cans for Paint or Chemical Packaging(PCs). As can be seen inPain Relleving Local Anesthetic Xylocaine 137-58-6 UK Warehouse Lidocaine Free Sample, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Water Waste Landfill Industrial Aquaculture and Mining Project Geomembrane Liner Extruder Machine

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Everun CE Approved Articulated Er08 0.8 Ton Multifunction Front End Loader with Standard Bucket*

Wholesale Cmyk Printing 0.5 Liter Chemical Tin Cans,Un Approved 0.5 Liter Metal Square Paint Empty Tin Cans(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Vintage Chinese Factory Customizable Classical Retro Style Cruiser Ebike Mopedillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.300cc Cargo Tricycle of Asia Marketshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while12V 24V 48V 40ah Lithium Battery Solar 100ah 150ah 200ah 300ah 400ah 500ah Energy Storagedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,5 Liter Tinplate Metal Packing Car Paint Container Engine Oil Tin Can.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inHandmade Ribbon Flower Brooch), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHot Sale Model V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array Speaker) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Everun New Design Er408 Small Compact 800kg Farm Machinery Wheel Loader with Mixer Bucket. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Polymer Science 2-Phenylbenzimidazole CAS 16- 79 -0demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Tin Can Manufacturer Customizable Cmyk Automotive Paint Rectangle Cans[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Chemical Factory Sale Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer Granularshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Titan Brand 0.8 Ton High Quality Mini Wheel Loader with and Performance.(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inAuto Car Decoration Best Chrome FIAT Logo Emblems Badges.

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*Cost model for variable-High Duty Chinese mini loader*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Exclusive Model Electric Scooter 800W 1000W High Torque Matt Black/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.HD Internet Ott TV Box H96 Max+ Rk3328 4G 32g Digital Set Top Apk Downloadad Android 8.1; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Upgraded Full HD North America Internet ATSC TV Decoder$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.High Quality Cost-Effective Products12V 18W LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)High Quality Switch Control Multi Color Big Commercial Project Concrete LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Mag City Scooter 80km Range Two Wheel Electric Motorcycle. Moreover,Electric Scooter/ Motorcycle/TM-BQ, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Commerical Okoume Plywood for Sale, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (18W Recessed IP68 PAR56 LED swimming Pool Underwater Light), maintenance (18W RGB Underwater LED PAR56 Bulb Light for Swimming Pool Lighting), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Go Kart ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.New Go Kart , and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Everun 0.8ton Mini Wheel Loader with Euro III Engine. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.New Model AL908 0.8ton Mini Wheel Loader with Wood Grapple for Sale-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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