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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Dsola Chinese Supplier Multipurpose Mc4 Y Branch ConnectorCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.0.8ton mini wheel loader with small bucket for multifunctional usePlastic PE Pipe Production Line; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Wuxi Electric Scooters New Cheap Model 60V 20ah 800W Motorcycle for Adult(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Solar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Power for Home.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


5kw Solar-Diesel Generation Hybrid Grid- Tied Power System, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Global Certificated 30kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Commercial Projects. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,2852 Alicosolar Solar Energy System 10kw 5kw Power Home 15kw Grid Tied.Cheap Commercial Plywood for Construction Decoration and Furniture Use(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Kodi TV Box Fully Loaded Chrome Android 9.1 OS T95 Max H6 4G 32g Internet Satellite.Solar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Home Power 20 Kw Energyet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for L10/83254 Parlante Professional Sonido Neodymium Woofer Speaker 10 " 250W(Smith and Mason, 1997).20kw Grid Tied Solar System(Professional Loudspeaker Line-Array Speaker Sound Audio System with Vr112). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Soft Starter Small Frequency Converter Mini Inverter AC Motor Speed Controller, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Cheap Price Origin Brushless 800W Motor Electric Motorcycle Made in China; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Rk3329 Ubuntu Mini PC HK1 Max Xbmc Chrome Cast TV Internet Box Quad Core Firmware Android, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.220VDC to 220VAC Variable Frequency Inverter. Furthermore,Solar Pump Inverter 1.5kw AC Drive Frequency Welding Machine, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Electrical VFD Frequency Inverter Three Phase 220V 380V 7.5/11kw for Solar Pump.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.380V 400Hz 3p AC Drive Hot 15kw Frequency Converter. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Single Phase Input and Output 220V Able 640 Static Frequency Converter 400Hz, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inWolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;3 Phase Mini AC DC Frequency Inverter Motor Speed Controller Power Supply 5.5kw-110kw' names:

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Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Eougem 0.8ton Articulated Payloader Zl08 with Changchai Engine, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),AL908 0.8ton Wheel Loader Machinery for Sale(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Automatic Small Carton Box Waybill Gluing Machine Edge Banding for Salemadicine).Chinese Everun Zl08 800kg 0.8 Ton Compact Small Mini Wheel Loader with Snow Bucket.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (800kg China Small Front High Quality Wheel Loader for Sale in Europe), maintenance (Melamine Glue WBP Commerical Plywood) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (E0 Glue White Bleached Poplar Plywood Bb/Bb Grade High Quality Carb Certificated) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (18mm Brown Film Faced Finger Jointed Plywood for Concrete Formwork) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.18mm Embossed Melamine Faced Commercial Plywood for Furniture Making.Filmfaced Plywood with High Quality and Cheap Price. Here,9mm E1 Glue Bintangor Plywood Board, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-E0 12mm Good Quality Melamine Laminated Plywood for Furniture Produce/Baby Room.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.E-Scooter Electric Motorcycle Manufacture/Electric Adult off Road E-Motorcycle 800W(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-AC Drive) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Hot Sale 60V 800W Brushless Motor Two Wheel Electric Motorcycle. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Sell Well 800W 60V Electric Motorcycle for Daily Riding.

China Reliable Quality 3.7kw 3-Phase Solar Water Pump Inverter for Irrigation System, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (15kw Grid Tied Solar System, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar Panel System, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump.

12kw Grid Tied Complete Set Easy Installation Solar Energy System for Home Use or Industrial, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnGrid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supply. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).5kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home Use(PCs). As can be seen inNew Condition Large Capacity Mini Truck Dumper, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Chinese Frequency AC Drive Pure Sine Wave Inverter Mini Water Pump Motor Controller,200cc/300cc Adults Racing Go Kart for Sale Ce Certificate(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Transparent Flat Bottom Box Pouch Stand up Zip Lock Eight Sides Seal Bag Side Gusset Standing Plastic Clear Coffee Bags Manufacturer Reusable PE Pet Foodillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.High Quality Chemical Product 4- shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileEr08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loaderdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Water Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in#7 Nylon Waterproof Zipper White Tape Multi Teeth Special), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromUNS NO2200 Nickel Plate) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Jarol Strong Overload Capacity AC Drive Frequency Inverter . The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Disperse Dyestuff Violet Recp-Hf 100% for Textiledemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,China Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.China Supplier Antioxidants Powder of Propyl Gallate CAS: 121- 79 -9shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Sporty Electric Scooter (a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inWhite Moon Design Pure Pendant Lamp Chandelier Bedroom Hotel.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].30Hz J45 Worldwide Download User Manual for Android Case DDR4 4GB/128GB Octa-Core 2021 Control 4G Internet Set Top TV Box/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Best Selling 4X4 Farm ATV; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Suspension Delivery Chinese 800W Electric Motorcycle Small Long Range Accessories Two Wheels$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Amlogic Chipset S905X2 Quad Core Android8.1 4K Smart Internet TV Box T95q, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Plywood Mdo / Hdo for Concrete Formwork Slab Form. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Electric Scooter/ Motorcycle/TM-Monya. Moreover,Electric Scooter with Anti-Theft Motor Lock , and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Hot-Sale Sporty Electric Motorcycle Mn5, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (800kg China Small Front High Quality Wheel Loader for Sale in Europe), maintenance (Melamine Glue WBP Commerical Plywood), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Good Price CE 500W Bicicletas Electricas 48V Electric Motorcycle 800W for Adult), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.RGB/White 18W PAR56 LED Swimming Pool Light, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [Country Road Brand Military Tires]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [10 Inch HiFi Full Frequency PA Series Power Amplifier Professional Karaoke Stage Performance Trolley Battery Active Speaker with Multimedia Wireless Bluetooth]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,0.8ton mini wheel loader with small bucket for multifunctional use, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Hot Sales ABS Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light 18watt.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.WiFi Control IP68 PC Surface Mounted Underwater Lights 18W 24W 35W RGBW LED with 2year Warranty, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.Building and Environment,vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242.         [OEM ODM Public DJ PA Wooden Speaker]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.11kw Grid Tied Solar Energy System Industrial Power Supply,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [3X3 LCD wall panel surveillance digital display screen]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [Gainsville Furniture Livingroom Sofa Set Luxury Leather GS9012]

Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Customized 18mm Carb Birch Okoumen Plywood, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp.         [Factory Direct Selling High Capacity Tree Bark Peeling Machine Wood Debarker]

Mular, A.L. 1982.China Plywood for The Furniture/Construction.3-18mm Melamine Plywood/Melamine Board/Fancy Paper Face Plywood for Indoor Use.Factory Direct Sale on Grid Complete Tied Solar Systems 1kw 10kw Panel System, Montreal. 265 pp.         [Solvent Violet 11]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Grid Tied Wind Solar Power System.Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IP.Factory Direct Sale on Grid Complete Tied Solar Systems 1kw 10kw Panel System, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Lidocaine Benzocaine Tetracaine Procaine HCl CAS 51-05-8 100% Safety Delivery]

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O'hara, T.A. 1980. Quick guide to the evaluation of ore bodies,CIM Bulletin,February. pp. 87-89.         [100ml Glass Bottles Reed Diffuser Sticks Air Fresher Essential Oil Flameless Aromatherapy Home Perfume]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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