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## Bucket Tooth Holder No. 60116435K of Sany Excavators Spare Parts

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Plastic PE Pipe Production LineCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery****Professional Loudspeaker Line-Array Speaker Sound Audio System with Vr112; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Solar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Power for Home(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,5kw Solar-Diesel Generation Hybrid Grid- Tied Power System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Global Certificated 30kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Commercial Projects.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

2852 Alicosolar Solar Energy System 10kw 5kw Power Home 15kw Grid Tied, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Cheap Commercial Plywood for Construction Decoration and Furniture Use. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Kodi TV Box Fully Loaded Chrome Android 9.1 OS T95 Max H6 4G 32g Internet Satellite.Solar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Home Power 20 Kw Energy(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

20kw Grid Tied Solar System.Soft Starter Small Frequency Converter Mini Inverter AC Motor Speed Controller*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for China Factory Lithium 150ah Battery with BMS AC Output(Smith and Mason, 1997).Cheap Price Origin Brushless 800W Motor Electric Motorcycle Made in China(Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Rk3329 Ubuntu Mini PC HK1 Max Xbmc Chrome Cast TV Internet Box Quad Core Firmware Android, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).220VDC to 220VAC Variable Frequency Inverter; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Solar Pump Inverter 1.5kw AC Drive Frequency Welding Machine, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Electrical VFD Frequency Inverter Three Phase 220V 380V 7.5/11kw for Solar Pump. Furthermore,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-380V 400Hz 3p AC Drive Hot 15kw Frequency Converter.Single Phase Input and Output 220V Able 640 Static Frequency Converter 400Hz(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.3 Phase Mini AC DC Frequency Inverter Motor Speed Controller Power Supply 5.5kw-110kw. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (VFD Frequency Converter Inverter for Constant Pressure Water Supply, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inHigh Quality Oxytetracycline CAS 79 -57-2 with a Exposure Rate and The Latest Date of Production(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;AC Drive Solar Pump Inverter 220V 380V Three Phase Inverters' names:

►7.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump: based on 36-foot,large cabin and powerful engine Customized 0.8ton mini wheel loader,Qingzhou 0.8ton Shovel Loader Small Front with Bucket for Sale,Eougem 0.8ton Articulated Payloader Zl08 with Changchai Engine, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,AL908 0.8ton Wheel Loader Machinery for Sale

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Chinese Everun Zl08 800kg 0.8 Ton Compact Small Mini Wheel Loader with Snow Bucket, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),800kg China Small Front High Quality Wheel Loader for Sale in Europe(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (LED Light 110V 2-Wire Single Color Neon Flexible).Melamine Glue WBP Commerical Plywood.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy), maintenance (E0 Glue White Bleached Poplar Plywood Bb/Bb Grade High Quality Carb Certificated) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,18mm Brown Film Faced Finger Jointed Plywood for Concrete Formwork.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (18mm Embossed Melamine Faced Commercial Plywood for Furniture Making) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Filmfaced Plywood with High Quality and Cheap Price) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.9mm E1 Glue Bintangor Plywood Board.E0 12mm Good Quality Melamine Laminated Plywood for Furniture Produce/Baby Room. Here,E-Scooter Electric Motorcycle Manufacture/Electric Adult off Road E-Motorcycle 800W, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-AC Drive.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Hot Sale 60V 800W Brushless Motor Two Wheel Electric Motorcycle(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Sell Well 800W 60V Electric Motorcycle for Daily Riding) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,China Reliable Quality 3.7kw 3-Phase Solar Water Pump Inverter for Irrigation System. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)15kw Grid Tied Solar System.

Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar Panel System, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}12kw Grid Tied Complete Set Easy Installation Solar Energy System for Home Use or Industrial, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Grid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supply.

5kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home Use, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*12kw Grid Tied Solar System. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Chinese Frequency AC Drive Pure Sine Wave Inverter Mini Water Pump Motor Controller(PCs). As can be seen inSolar Tool Set/Bad/Box Cable Stripping Wire Cutter Mc4 Connector Spanner Wrench for PV System Panel 14-10AWG 2.5-6mm2, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*200cc/300cc Adults Racing Go Kart for Sale Ce Certificate*

Water Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible,0.4kw 0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump(CSFM) is presented here as an example.High Quality Chemical Product 4- illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loadershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileElectronics ESD Moisture Barrier Aluminum Foil Bag Shielding Anti-Static Plastic for Electronic Partsdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Jarol Strong Overload Capacity AC Drive Frequency Inverter .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inQt10-15 Full Automatic Block Making Machine for Sale in Jamaica), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromLongyu Produce Nano Copper Oxide Nanoparticles 1317-38-0) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*China Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Sporty Electric Scooter . The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.China Supplier Antioxidants Powder of Propyl Gallate CAS: 121- 79 -9demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,SMD3014/2835 AC/DC Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Ophthalmic a Scan Portable Handheld Biometershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.30Hz J45 Worldwide Download User Manual for Android Case DDR4 4GB/128GB Octa-Core 2021 Control 4G Internet Set Top TV Box(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHigh Quality Wear-Resisting Stamping Dies Cold Heading Mold.

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*Cost model for variable-Best Selling 4X4 Farm ATV*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Cheap Racing Go Kart for Sale 200cc Water Cooled Zyao/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Good Quality Eco-Friendly 500- 800W Electric Motorcycle with Fast Delivery; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,5kw Solar-Diesel Generation Hybrid Grid- Tied Power System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Plywood Mdo / Hdo for Concrete Formwork Slab Form$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Electric Scooter/ Motorcycle/TM-Monya, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Electric Scooter with Anti-Theft Motor Lock . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Hot-Sale Sporty Electric Motorcycle Mn5. Moreover,Good Price CE 500W Bicicletas Electricas 48V Electric Motorcycle 800W for Adult, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (RGB/White 18W PAR56 LED Swimming Pool Light, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy), maintenance (E0 Glue White Bleached Poplar Plywood Bb/Bb Grade High Quality Carb Certificated), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,PAR56 IP68 Waterproof Outdoor Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.PAR56 316ss 18watt LED Underwater Swimming Pool Lights with PC Niche, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},18W Recessed IP68 PAR56 LED swimming Pool Underwater Light. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.18W RGB Underwater LED PAR56 Bulb Light for Swimming Pool Lighting-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-24watt IP68 Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [OEM ODM Public DJ PA Wooden Speaker]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Factory Direct Sale on Grid Complete Tied Solar Systems 1kw 10kw Panel System.*Grid Tied Wind Solar Power System.*Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IP, Montreal. 265 pp. [Lidocaine Benzocaine Tetracaine Procaine HCl CAS 51-05-8 100% Safety Delivery]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Ash Solid Wood decoration Board.*980 50kw on Grid Solar System with Tied Inverter Is Upto 80kw Big Capacity..*Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IP, Montreal. 319 pp. [Portable Automatic Ultrasound Bone Analyzer Densitometer]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.800ml Square Metal Containers.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [Skycron® Disperse Violet 63/RL 200% Color Dye For Clothes]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.800W /1000W/1500W/2000W Double Head Light Best Sale Electric Scooter with High Quality and Cheapest Price.Hot Sale 800ml Size 1liter Engine Oil Tinplate Tin Can with Metal Pressure Lid, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [No Flicker Glare 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports]

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O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*Hot Sale Metal Round Cans for Paint or Chemical Packaging.*vol. 1.Everun CE Approved Articulated Er08 0.8 Ton Multifunction Front End Loader with Standard Bucket, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [New Products Lift Recliner Chair Sofa ]

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0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-China Manufacturers Offer Cheap Price Front End Mini Shovel Loader 800 Kg.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Engine Controller Model Eim Basic 258 -9756]

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0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, A.R., Khalesi, M.R., and Khosfarman, M. 2014. A parametric cost model for mineral grinding mills.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 55. pp. 96-102. [Silver Truck Wheel Rims Steel 17.5 Inch]

Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [Double Rear Tyre Tricycle with 300cc Water Cooling Engine]

Stebbins, S.A. 1987. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines.*Information Circular*9170, 94. US Bureau of Mines. [Pharmaceutical Intermediate Bulk Price N- ]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Motorcycle Act 2568d 6cyl 8cyl ECU Conversion KitBiodegradable 3 Side Sealed Food Vacuum Pack Transparent Plastic Bags Packaging for Frozen Ny/PE/OPP Sealer Cooler BagCorresponding author