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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


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S. Arfania; A.R.Cheap 20W Fiber Laser Color Metal Marking Marker Machine Price20kw Grid Tied Solar System; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Stainless Steel Metal Rotray Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Aluminum(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Flexible Label Laser Marking Machine for Automotive, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.CATV Indoor Amplifier 8200.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


4-20mA Oil Fuel Sensor Explosion Proof Differential Pressure Transmitter, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Softel 3ru CATV 24 Way Fixed-Channel Analog Modulator. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Metal Fiber Ring Color Laser Engraving Machine.Perfect Laser Rotary DOT Peen Marker for Sale(Khalesiet al.,2015).

0-5V 0-10V Raw Petro High Temperature Sapphire Pressure Transducer.Hot Sells Solar Power System for Home 3kwh with Both AC&DC Outputet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 5150-5850MHz Sector Panel Antenna with Gain 13dBi(Smith and Mason, 1997).6 Injectors Testing & Coding Simultaneously Diesel Test Bench for Common Rail System Eui Eup Heui Heup Cummins Hpi (Living Room Furniture Specific Use Fabric Leisure Sofa). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)110/90- 17 Used Tubeless Second Hnad Motor Tire/Tyre, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).3kwh LiFePO4 Battery with 5 Years Warranty; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Anti Explosion High Stability Sealed Pressure Sensor, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Best Price 2021 New Product 3kwh Home Solar System for Outdoor Use. Furthermore,Screw Compressor Low Cost Small Type Pressure Sensor, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Solar Energy Storage System Built-in Inverter.4-20mA Diffused Silicon Micro Size Hygienic Pressure Transducer(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Lithium Battery 200ah LiFePO4 Pack 3kwh. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Smokeless Rice Husk Continuous Carbonization Oven for Sale, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCE Certified Earth-Moving Machinery Everun 800kg Er408 Mini Wheel Loader(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;45kw Mf Induction Heating Machine Heater' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,316L Ceramic Pressure Transducer for Health Care Industry

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Factory Wholesale Price Industrial Induction Vacuum Furnace, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Mini Size Water Differential Pressure Sensor for HVAC(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (3 Years Warranty 14.4W Super High CRI 95 SMD5050 LED Flexible Strip).Water Transmitter Diffused Silicon Level Sensor for Fluid.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Digital Display Hygienic Pressure Indicator Transmitter), maintenance (High Stable Universal Pressure Transmitter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,4-20mA Micro Air Gas Differential Pressure Sensor Transducer.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (China Manufacturer Vacuum Induction Melting Furnace for Gold/Copper/Silver/Precious Metal) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Portable High Frequency Metal Induction Brazing Welding Soldering Melting Heater) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Motorcycle Tires/Motorcycle Tyre/Tire 2.50- 17 2.50-18 2.75- 2.75-18.Black Valve Universal Programmable OE Replacement TPMS Sensor. Here,Mobile Induction Heater for Welding Brazing Melting, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Fractional RF & Thermal Beauty Machine.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Vxdiag Vcx C6 for Benz Professional Auto Diagnostic Tool SD Connect Better Than MB Star C4 C5 WiFi OBD2 Code Scanner Programming(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Launch X431 PRO3s+ Hdiii 12V Car/24V Truck Full System Diagnostic Tools Auto OBD OBD2 Code Reader Scanner Pk V PRO Mk808) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Hot Selling Tires Motorcycle Tyres 110/90- 17. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Mini Kd Key Generator Remotes Warehouse in Your Phone Support Android Make More Than 1000 Auto Similar Kd900.

Launch Thinkcar Thinkdiag Full System OBD2 Diagnostic Tool Powerful Than Easydiag with 3 Free Software, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (90/90-21 China Super Cheap Motorcycle Tire/Tyre, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

110/90-18 Bigbiz Brand Motorcycle Tyre/Tire for Europe Market, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Water Bottles Wrapping Machines Semi Automatic Film Shrink Machine.

Gy6 -80 Motorcycle Parts Starting Motor Gear, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnFull Automatic Liquid Pure Mineral Drinking Soda Water Bottle Labeling Packing Equipment. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W RGB Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater(PCs). As can be seen in800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter , neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Fully Automatic Shrink Wrapping Packing Machine,No Flicker Glare Cost-Effective Products12V 18W LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Ihi Turbocharger 2001-04 Peugeotillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Outdoor PA System Three-Way Large Touring Performance Line Array Speakershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while8X4" Active Column PA Speakerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Newest 250cc Farm UTV 200cc Go Kart Buggy with Ce.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in3 Ton Lever Block & Manual Chain Hoist), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromGrid Tied Microinverter 1200W Waterproof Pure Sine Wave with WiFi Monitoring) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Motorcycle Stator Coil/Magneto/Bobina Del Estator/Moto Partes/Repuestos Gy6 8coils. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.CAS No.: 63428-84-2 Polyamide PA Resin for Untreated Filmdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,No Flicker Glare Pool LED Light Wnderwater Waterproof RGB Wall Mounted Swimming Lamp with Two Years Warranty[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.China New Design Everun Er408 Mini Small Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Pumpshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Gy6 /Jog Motorcycle Regulator/Rectifier Parts(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inZinc Alloy Embossed Bronze Dragon Totem Medal Challenge Coin.

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Cost model for variable-Yog Spare Parts Accessories Motorcycle Stator Comp Gy6 125

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Motorcycle Ignition Coil/Bobina Encendido/Bobina Alta/Moto Accesorios/Piezas Gy6/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Gy6 /Jog Motorcycle Spare Parts Regulator/Rectifier; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Flexible Label Laser Marking Machine for Automotive, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Motorcycle Spare Part Turn Light for Gy6 -150$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Fractional RF & Thermal Machine , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Motorcycle Ignition Coil Bobina Alta Tvs Star Gy6 -125 Cg125. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Good Price Top 20mrf Crf Wrinkle Removal Anti-Aging Device. Moreover,20MHz RF Face Skin Lifting and Tightening Machine, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (20MHz RF Beauty Machine Skin Tightening, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Digital Display Hygienic Pressure Indicator Transmitter), maintenance (High Stable Universal Pressure Transmitter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Super 20MHz RF Beauty Machine), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.20MHz RF with New Technology for Body Tightening, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Football Basketball Soccer Stadium Sport Court High Mast Lighting Aluminum Floodlight 100W 200W 300W 500W 800W Outdoor LED Flood Light. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.ADSS Body Slimming Beauty Machine -feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Lashgari, A.Microneedle Fractional RF Thermagic Face Lift Wrinkle Removal Machine, A.R. 2013.RF Microneedle Thermal Facial Lift Beauty Equipment,Motorcycle Spare Parts High Quality Flasher 6V 12V Gy6 -125 Tvs Star Bajaj Bm150,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Three Phase Cee Socket with Panel Mounted]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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