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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Plastic Products Virgin Granules Raw Material Light Blue Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Electrical PartsCost modelling for flotation machines

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Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Wolf Wl80 Mini Dumper Euro 5 Loader for Sale(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,0.8 Ton Chinese Low Cost High Quality Hydraulic Wheel Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.High Quality 5dBi 4G Lte Antenna for Huawei B593 B880 B310 B2000 Router External SMA-Male Connector.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


WLAN WiFi Yagi Antenna, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,External 2.4GHz/ 5GHz Dual-Band Small Antenna/Flexible Antenna. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,150cc Go Kart with EEC .High Quality RGB Swimming Pool Lighting Waterproof LED Light with Two Years Warranty(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Grid Tied 5kw Solar Energy System Home Power 5000W for Roof Tile.High Quality Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light for Intex Pools or Themeet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for New Model Solar Home System 3kwh with LiFePO4 Battery(Smith and Mason, 1997).800W Power Electtric Motorcycle Scooter / Electrical Motorcycles Bicycle (Factory Export 99% Purity Chlorhexidine CAS55-56-1 with Lowest Price). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)2021 Hot Sale Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).High Quality Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Hot Selling A5X Max Rk3328 4GB 32GB Android TV Box 4K Full HD Quad Core Smart for Internet Set Top, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Topleo I96 King 1GB/2GB RAM Smart Android 7.1 Quad Core Internet 4K Ultra HD Support TV Box. Furthermore,15kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home Use, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Grid Tied 100kw 200kw 300kw Solar System.Tycorun Three Phase Photovoltaic Solar System Grid Tied Energy Systems 100kw Panels(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Factory Direct Sale Grid Tied Solar Power System on 1000wp 5000wp 10000wp for Wholesale. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Vimode Electric Scooter Adult Motorcycle for Adults 800W 650W, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inFrequency Converter 50HP Three Phases(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Adv. 1 Alloy Wheel ' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,New Design 800W 1000W Electric Scooter Motorcycle for Riding

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,5.8GHz 30dBi Single-Pol Die Cast Grid Antenna, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Mimo Antenna 5150MHz~5850MHz WiFi Panel(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Private Label 100ml Anitbaterial Isopropyl Alcohol 70% Disinfection Spray).5GHz 20dBi Panel WiFi Antenna.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Fast Ship 800W 1000W 1200W 60V 72V 20ah Battery Electric Motorcycle From China), maintenance (Hot Sale 2.4/ 5GHz 9dBi Rubber WiFi Antenna) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,5GHz 12dBi Dual Polarity MIMO Omni Antenna.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Electric Motorcycle Fashion Design 800W with Removable Battery) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarization Panel WLAN Antenna) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Guangzhou Manufacturer Empty Anti Bacterial Diesel Additive Can for Fuel Cleaner.Hot Sale Special Cooking Coconut Oil Tin Can Milk Tank Beverage Cans. Here,Buy Food Grade Metal Material Empty Cans for 0.5-2.5L, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Hot Sale 301 401 Easy Opening Seal Can Round Empty Tin with Metal Caps.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.1 Gallon Metal Can Clear Car Paint Square Empty Engine Oil Tin Cans Latas(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-10X5.5'' Best Light 110mm off Road Steel ATV Wheel Rim) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Central Hole 68mm 10X5.5'' Mild Steel ATV Wheel Rim. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Alloy Wheels .

Silver Truck Wheel Rims Steel 17.5 Inch, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (15-20 Inch Quality Auto Alloy Wheels 4*4 Wheel for Trailer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

High Efficiency Waterproof Grid Tied PV Inverter 230V DC to AC, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Finished Surface HD Truck Wheel 17.5inch Rims Steel.

250CC Go Kart , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andn18mm Carb Birch Okoumen Plywood. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Retro Electric Motorcycle Scooter (PCs). As can be seen inWaterproof Floor Standing Alone Outdoor Digital Signage Display, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Low Power Elevator Inverter 12kw with Controller,High Quality 18mm Carb Birch Okoumen Plywood(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Live/Installed Sound System PRO Speaker Box illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Modern Green Velvet Lounge New Style Chester Sofashows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileMade in China High Performance Tubeless Fat Motorcycle Tire 180/55- 17demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,1.5kw 220V Frequency Converter Single Phase 380 3.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inFactory Supply Multiple Outlets with USB Us Waterproof Power Strip), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromEverun Brand China New Product Er408t Mini Bucket Wheel Loader Price with CE Approved for Sale) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Carb E0 Cabinet Grade 18mm Plywood in High Quality. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.No Flicker Glare IP68 Resin Filled 18W 12V Surface Mounted LED Pool Lights for Intex Pools or Themedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,1.5kw 220V Frequency Inverter Brands AC Drive for Electric Motor[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Inverter Cabinet VFD Frequency AC Drives 15kw Motorshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal selling tractor front end wheel pallet fork loader for argricultural(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in2021 Fitness Men Compression Wear Fashion Dry Fit T Shirt for Gym Training.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Carb Bleach White Poplar Plywood LVL 12mm 18mm/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Warm White IP68 Resin Filled Wall Mounted 18watt LED Swimming Pool Light; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,0.8 Ton Chinese Low Cost High Quality Hydraulic Wheel Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Wolf Loader Wl80 Zl08 Radlader Mini Wheel. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.2021 New Design Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty, indicated inHigh Quality Nootropics Noopept CAS 157115-85-0 Best Price, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

High Quality Carb Certified Birch Faced Furniture Plywood$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.UV Birch Plywood with Poplar Core Carb E0 Glue From Factory, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)17 Inch 18 Aftermarket New Design Aluminum Car Alloy Rim. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.China Wolf Wl80 Articulated Mini Loader. Moreover,Digital ATSC Receiver Internet TV Set Top Box, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Vimode Buy 2021 Newest 48V Electric Motorcycles Made in China 800W, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Fast Ship 800W 1000W 1200W 60V 72V 20ah Battery Electric Motorcycle From China), maintenance (Hot Sale 2.4/ 5GHz 9dBi Rubber WiFi Antenna), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,High Quality Aluminum Alloy Wheels Rims), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Truck Rim Steel Polished 17.5 Inch Wheel, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Lashgari, A.Home Use Cheap Solar Panel System 10kw Grid Tied Kit, A.R. 2013.2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports,5GHz Antenna High Gain 32dBi,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Waterproof Highlight 24V Aluminum Substrate 3030 Diffuse Reflector Lamp Strip LED Light Bar]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Brown Black Opaque Chemical Industrial Container 100ml Flip Top Cap Bottle.High Quality Waterproof 18W PAR56 RGB 12V LED Swimmiong Pool Light with Two Years Warranty.Nicheless Flat Resin Filled Thin 12W Wall Mounted IP68 RGB Underwater LED Swimming Pool Lights, Montreal. 265 pp.         [Hot Sale Factory Direct Supply 60/72V Electric Scooter Green Power Adult E-Motorcycle]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.2.5A 0.4kw IP20 Jarol Variable Frequency Drive.No Flicker Glare Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip.Nicheless Flat Resin Filled Thin 12W Wall Mounted IP68 RGB Underwater LED Swimming Pool Lights, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Electric Scooter with Anti-Theft Motor Lock ]

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Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.17 Inch Machined Aftermarket Alloy Wheel .2021 New Design Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp.         [Good Solutions 3kw Solar Home Energy off Grid System]

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15-20 Inch Quality Auto Alloy Wheels 4*4 Wheel for Trailer, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Carb P2 AA/Bb Grade Birch/Okoume/Bintangor/Poplar Plywood.Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,vol. 27. pp.133-141.         [15'' Coaxial Speaker ]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 2.2kwDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p273Corresponding author

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