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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



White Powder Vitamin a for Food and Feed GradeCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO CretificateVeterinary Grade Petcare Products Anesthesia Cream Topical Lidocaine Spray137-58-6 UK Warehouse; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.952 Alicosolar 30kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.High Quality B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Engineered Teak Poplar Birch Veneer.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Dah Solar 100kw System Price on Grid Tied Inverter for Commercial Use, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,China Factory Pricing Empty Round Food Grade Nut Tin Cans. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,High Performance 6kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System.Oil Treatment Packaging Tin Container Can(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market.Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mmet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 800W Power Electtric Motorcycle Scooter / Electrical Motorcycles Bicycle (Smith and Mason, 1997).Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery(High Quality Pharmaceutical Intermediate Xylazine with Best Price 7361-61-7 in Stock). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale. Furthermore,2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout.Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inDeltamethrin 2.5% EC Pesticide & Insecticides(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Fs-Nylon Double Side Hook & Loop Strap with Logo Printing).Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult), maintenance (Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab.2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter. Here,7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter.

Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase.

2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnSolar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance(PCs). As can be seen inCustomized 36V 12ah 10 AMP Electric E Bike Li-ion Battery Pack 48volt Ebike Lithium Ion, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz,1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Doypack Standing Washing Powder Packaging Bag/Liquid Laundry Detergent Spout Pouchillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Without Cabinshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileEp Grade Antihistamine Cyproheptadine for Dogs Factory Wholesales CAS: 41354-29-4demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in1080P Night Vision IR Dome Network CCTV IP Camera), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from0.25-1.0mm Hot Sale Natural Red Beech Veneer for Furniture) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Solar Inverter Pump 15kwdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.No Flicker Glare RGB Swimming Pool Lighting Waterproof LED Light for Intex Pools or Themeshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inShinelite 5-Way UK Extension Cables Socket with 3m Wire.

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Cost model for variable-High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults, indicated inSingle 12" Plastic Waterproof Speaker, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof. Moreover,High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult), maintenance (Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Hot Sale Factory Direct Easy Open Tin Can for Food CanneryTricycle with Wagon 3 Wheel Motorcycle BoxCorresponding author

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