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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**loader with excavator grapple wheel mini for sale good qualityCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Ce Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer ****100% Copper Wire St-5kw Single Phase Brush Generator; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.5GHz 10dBi Wideband Omni WLAN Antenna(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Jy125t-36c 125cc Scooter with Cdi and Efi, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna .

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

2021 New Arrival China Supplying Internet TV Set Top Box Smart 4K HD 4GB Android 9 Amlogic S922X, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,5GHz 23dBi Enclosure WLAN Antenna. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,16" Inch Steel Wheel for Toyota Prado Land Cruiser.off Road 200cc Motorcycle for Hot Sale(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

off Load 150cc Motorcycle with High Speed.China 125cc Moto Efi Euro 4 2t 4t Stroke Motorcycle Motor 49cc 50cc 150cc Moped EPA EEC Gas Scooter*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for High Quality 99% L-Pyroglutamic Acid (Smith and Mason, 1997).China Al-Gw6 800W Electric Motorbike with 60V/20ah Battery(0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 28dBi). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Linux TV Box International Internet Smart IPTV Zgemma I55, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for BMW; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,20" Inch Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for Astonmartin, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.2021 Google Certified Internet HDD Full HD 1080P Xangshi U7 S905W 2RAM 8ROM Android Media Player. Furthermore,Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for Volkswagen VW Tiguan Atlas Touareg, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Hot Sell Good Quality Best China Manufacturer Factory Price Transvaginal Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner.Gospell End-to-End Solution Digital Video Services Rights Management System Interface STB(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Medical Automatic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer in Low Price. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Yj-Ubd7a Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Made in China, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8637n Multicolor Metal Effect Paints(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Biometer & Pachymeter Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Clinical Equipment Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer for Hospital

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Apr125 White Motorcycle, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Apr125 Red Motorcycle(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Owl Shap Acrylic Custom Wholesale LED Neon Sign).Apr125-2 White Motorcycle.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Underwater Swimming Pool Light Decoration LED Lamp), maintenance (IN-AC5MC USB mobile scan cheapest pocket handheld hospital ultrasound scanner) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Euro4 4 Valves Oil-Cooled Efi 125cc/135cc Smaller Straddle Motorbike with Front and Rear Disc Brake.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (350cc Motorcycle with Double-Cylinder & Water-Cooled Engine ) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Popular Medical Device Automatic Bone Densitometer) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Diesel Cargo Three Wheel Tricycle for Sale From China.Diesel Dump Central Steering Drive Three Wheeler From China for Sale. Here,Chinese Diesel Three Wheel Tricycle with Sunshade, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-One and Half Rows Three Wheeler for Sale.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Chinese Wholesale Gas Powered EPA Ce Trike Scooter 300cc(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Adult 800W Power Electric Scooter Suit for Woman) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,800W Electric Motorbike with Front Disc Brake. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Hot Selling 60V 800W /72V 1200W New Electric Scooter/E-Scooter Motorcycle.

dB002e Hot Sell Electric Motorcycle 800W and Kids 500W with Ce for, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (350W/500W/ 800W /1000W/1200W Motor Electric Scooter EW-519 Classis Model, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}800W 60V20ah Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooter Motorcycle, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,New Energy Pedal Electric Scooter Max Speed 35km/H 350W 500W 800W Motor Power.

5GHz 30dBi Grid Parabolic Antenna , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*5GHz Dish Parabolic Antenna 29dBi. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).2.4/ 5GHz Dual Band H-Pol Sector Antenna(PCs). As can be seen inAC Frequency Converter2HP 1phase, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Electric Dirt Bike Zm-Es18 with 500W- 800W Motor*

5GHz 20dBi Enclosure WLAN Antenna,5GHz 45deg Dual Pol Sector Antenna(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate 21%Minillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Electric Motorcycle shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileHigh Quality with Good Price Oxytetracycline HCl Powderdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,5GHz 23dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inXrw- 300b Vicat Softening Point Apparatus), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromCheap Recycled Brown Kraft Paper Bag with Window 7&Slider Different Capacities Ziplock Manufacturer Heat Sealable Food Storage Doypack Packaging Container) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*5GHz Dual Pol Sector Antenna with Enclosure *

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.5GHz 34dBi Dish WLAN Antenna. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adultsdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarization Sector WiFi Antenna[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.1.4828 S30900 309 0cr23ni13 Uns DIN JIS SUS309 Stainless Steel Round Pipe Tubeshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inIndustrial Chocolate Jaffa Cake Production Line in Factory.

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*Cost model for variable-Poplar Film Faced Plywood Board with Carb Certificate*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].18W 12V IP68 Waterproof LED Swimming Pool Lamps/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Hot Sale on-Grid 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power Home System; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Jy125t-36c 125cc Scooter with Cdi and Efi, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Quality 18mm Carb Birch Okoumen Plywood$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Mini Wheel Loader Er08 with Hydrostatic Transmission System for Sale, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)30kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home Popular in Philippines. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.New Condition Large Capacity Mini Truck Dumper. Moreover,IP68 Resin Filled Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (50cc 150cc 200CCC 300cc Adult EPA/Ce 3 Wheel Gas Scooter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Underwater Swimming Pool Light Decoration LED Lamp), maintenance (IN-AC5MC USB mobile scan cheapest pocket handheld hospital ultrasound scanner), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with Edison Chip), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.150ml Plastic Clear White Bullet Liquid Bottle for Cosmetic Industry, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},14" to 22' Inch Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheel for KIA Rims. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Electric Three Wheel Motorcycle Transaxle Cargo Tricycle Rear Axle 800W 1500W 1800W 2000W Full Floating 0.5ton~1.2ton Accessories-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.loader with excavator grapple wheel mini for sale good quality.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [Rimonabant Powder Weight Loss Factory Direct Supply]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Pump Inverter Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers AC SupplierElectric MotorcycleCorresponding author