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## Disposable Breathable Adult Diaper for Hospital/Older Use

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Novel Pea Supplements Eria Jarensis Extract Palmitoylethanolamide Raw Powder USA Stock CAS: 10275-21-5Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Extinguisher Fan****5GHz 20dBi Panel WiFi Antenna; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p274(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla153p049, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p273.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154p332, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154pn006. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,High Quality Nickel Alloy Monel 400 .Tsp Trisodium Phosphate/ CAS No.: 7758- 79 -4/Anhydrous/Na3po4(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Disperse Violet 63.Skycron® Disperse Violet 1/2R 100% Fabric Dye for Polyester*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Solar Combiner Box DC 550V System with Mc4 Connector(Smith and Mason, 1997).Disperse Red 11 or Brill Pink 4bn(60W 16Ω Professional Coaxial in Ceiling Business Speaker Sound Audio System with Mq-6c190826). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)94% Sodium Tripolyphosphate STPP CAS No: 7758- 79 -4, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Skycron® Disperse Violet 63/RL 200% Color Dye For Clothes; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Flame Retardant Ammonium Polyphosphate , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Pigment Violet 23 Liquid. Furthermore,Asapp-II Ammonium Polyphosphate for Intumescent Paints , and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Water Treatment Softener Dibasic Sodium Phosphate 97% Powder CAS No.: 7558- 79 -4.Indissolvable Ammonium Polyphosphate CAS No. 68333- 79 -9(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Sodium Phosphate Dibasic CAS No 7558- 79 -4. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Detergent Grade Sodium Tripolyphosphate 94% CAS No: 7758- 79 -4, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inASTM A789 S32750 Uns Super Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Boring Machine Tools Micro Head F1type CNC Heads Set' names:

►Straight Shank Collets C16 C20 C25 C32 Collet Chuck for Power Milling: based on 36-foot,High Precision Milling Bt30 Tool Holder Collet Chuck for Lathe Machine,94% Sodium Tripolyphosphate STPP CAS No: 7758- 79 -4,Supply Ammonium Polyphosphate APP , and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Sdc Shrink Collet Chuck Toolholders for CNC Machine Part

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Nickel Based Alloy W. Nr 2.4819 Hastelloy C276 Uns N10276 High Temperature Steel Round Flat Bar, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),UNS NO2200 Nickel Plate(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Professional Factory Manufacturing Mini Portable Medical High Efficiency Oxygen Concentrator).Machine Tools 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla148p591), maintenance (Machine Tools High Precision 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Diesel Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160pn141.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Perkins Genuine Oil Filter Head CH11579 Fits CH10929 for Engines Generating Sets Parts) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel System SD265 Nozzle) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Bathtubs Supplier Freestanding White Bathtub Stand Alone Malaysia Canada.Vat Violet 13. Here,Custom CNC Machining Stainless Steel Small Tablet Press Machine Parts Pill Shape Mold Punches and Dies, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Solvent Violet 9 .

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.CAS 81-48-1 Solvent Violet 13 for Dyestuff Powder(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Inconel X-750 Forged/Forging Round Bars ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Factory Price Hot Selling Massage Swimming Pool SPA. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Laswim Swim SPA Endless Swimming Pool Whirlpool Bathtub.

Jwell- PVC|PP|PE|PC|ABS Small Profile Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Machine for Building Industry Home and Office Decoration, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (HDPE Plastic Geomembrane Sheet Making Extrusion Machine, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Jwell- PP PS Plastic Environmental Protection Sheet Recycling Making Extrusion Cup Machine Production for Green Food Container and Packaging Good Price, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Uns No6600 Inconel600 Steel Plate.

Alloy C276 Hastelloy Nickel Pipe ASTM B622 ASME Sb622 Uns N10276., analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Alloy Inconel 625 Nickel Strip . MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 148pn306(PCs). As can be seen inAlcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Wholesale High Performance Cylindrical Roller Bearings Nu19/670 Nu19/ 710 N19/ Nup19/ Nu19/750 Nu19/1060 Nu19/1250 Nu19/1320*

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Ut-O500 Diagnosis System Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Eyeshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileAC Fan Frequency Inverter VFD Vector Control 3pH 30kwdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Zys Rolling Mill Bearing Four Row Taper Roller Bearings 3810/ 710.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in275kVA/220kw Low Noise Power Generator Set Diesel Engine Genset with ISO), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromR-3-Amino-1-N-Boc-Piperidine) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.PA410 Resin Q-Hgm24 10 -20% Glass Mineral Filled Heat Stabilized. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.New Design Column Speaker 20PCS Driver Unit Professional Coaxial PA System with L16-Cidemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Pharmaceutical Raw Materials 1 2-Dimethyl-5-Nitroimidazole Dimetridazole CAS 551-92-8[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Peq-18SD1 18'' Bass Reflex Active Powerful Subwoofershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Trimethyl Cis(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inQtf12-15 Superior Big Scale Full Automatic Hydraulic Cement Sand Stone Fly Ash Interlocking Paving Solis Curbstone Hollow Concrete Brick Block Production Line.

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*Cost model for variable-Fast Delivery High Purity Benzaldehyde 100-52-7*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Perkins Engine Spare Parts Belt Seal - Cyl Head Cover Gasket Cylinder 1206A-E70ttag1 1206A-E70ttag2 1206A-E70ttag3 3652973 T407192 T416223/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Swimming SPA Pool Hot Tub Combo; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla153p049, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Perkins Genuine Cyl Head Assy $394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Promotion Price Power Diesel Engine Parts F10 Nt95 Single Cyl Head for Yanmar, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Chinese Heavy Truck Diesel Engine Pump Cylinder 161500137712. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Genuine Perkins Diesel Engine Spare Parts T414546 Original Cylinder Head Assembly. Moreover,Jwell PP Corrugated Roof Sheet Extrusion Machine, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Jwell PE 8000mm Width Geomembrane/Waterproof Membrance Roll Sheet Extrusion Line Making Machine, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla148p591), maintenance (Machine Tools High Precision 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Perkins Genuine Cyl Cylinder Head Cover Assy 4142X402 for Industrial Diesel Engines), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T9755n Multicolor Interference Effect, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Alcohol Benzene Polyamide Ink Resin. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.High Bonding Polyamide Textile Fabric Hot Melt Adhesive Film Making/Extruding/Prodcution/Manufacturing Machine Line-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

**References**

Camm, T.W. 1994.Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T9315n Multicolor Interference Effect.*Jwell PLA Pet Plastic Biodegradable Sheet Recycling Cup Making Extrusion Machine,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate]

Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.*International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,*vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431. [Best Quality SMD5050 60LED/120LED/ DC24 Single Color LED Light Strips]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc. [Waterproof IP66 Adjustable High Power LED Stadium Lamp 100W 200W 300W 400W 600W 800W 1000W 1200W 1500W Flood Light]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement,*vol. 20. pp. 141-151. [Yellow HDPE Masterbatch]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Extinguisher Fan, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8867n Multicolor Metal Effect.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [Lidocaine Hydrochloride CAS 73-78-9 HCl]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Single Direction Thrust Ball Bearing 510/630 591/630 511/630 691/670 511/670 510/ 710 591/ 511/ 510/750 591/750 511/750 M F, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.*Building and Environment,*vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242. [Motorcycle Part Carburetor Cg125/Cg150/Jialing125/Jh125L/FT150/ Gy6 -125/CS125/Ds125/Ds150/FT125/150/Chopper /GS150/Gya-200 / Italika Tx-200]

Lashgari, A.Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8207n Multicolor Metal Effect Gold Green Blue, A.R. 2013.Powerful Cheap Mountain Bike Bicycle,*Cylindrical Roller Bearing N19/ 710 Nu19/ Nup19/ Apply for Large and Medium-Sized Electric Motor,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [40 43 49 50 55 65 Inch OEM Double Glass 4K LED Television with Surround Sound System]

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Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University. [0.25mm Natural Wood Face Veneer]

Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Polyamide Resin, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp. [Factory Price HDMI 2.1 Cable Male to 1m 1.5m 2m 3m 8K]

Mular, A.L. 1982.Co-Soluble Polyamide Resin with Top Quality.*Alcohol Polyamide Resin for Printing Ink.*Popular Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Gravure Ink, Montreal. 265 pp. [AC Variable Frequency Drive Single Phase]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Polyamide Resin with Benzene Soluble for Printing Inks.*Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Printing Ink.*Popular Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Gravure Ink, Montreal. 319 pp. [Factory Supply Dimethyl 2]

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Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Farwell P-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde with High Purity 99.5%.High Quality Benzaldehyde with Fast Delivery, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Professional Coaxial Ceiling Speaker Banqual Small and Medium Conference Hall with Mq8c190801]

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Prasad, L. 1969.100% Purity Phenol Polyamide Resin.High Polyamide Resin, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal. pp. 3-15. [No Flicker Glare High Purity 18W Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip]

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HDPE Plastic Geomembrane Sheet Making Extrusion Machine, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [4 Feet Size Double Roller Wood Log Debarker Machine]

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Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [2way Indoor Club Party Wedding Line Array 15inch Sound System]

Stebbins, S.A. 1987. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines.*Information Circular*9170, 94. US Bureau of Mines. [Manufacturer Supply CAS 79 -14-1 Glycolic Acid 70% 99% Cosmetic Grade]

Timm, N.H. 2002. Applied Multivariate Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York. [Exclusive Model Electric Scooter 800W 1000W High Torque Matt Black]

USBM. 1987.Hot Sale Hy-688 Polyamide Resin,100% High Purity Polyamide Resin for Ink-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Automatic Wheel Aligner Automobile Garage Equipment]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

China Gas Scooters 2 Stroke Euro 4 125cc Moto Moped Motor EPA 49cc 50cc 150cc EEC Motorcycle Gasoline ScooterColor Changing Swimming Pool LightsCorresponding author