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vol.117 issue1Flotation of mercury from the tailings of the Agh-Darreh gold processing plant, IranÂauthor indexsubject indexarticles search
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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


CAS No. 63428-84-2 High Gloss Co-Solvent Soluble Polyamide Resin PA for Printing InkCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.High Quality Tretinoin with Good Price 5kw Philippines Photovoltaic Offgrid Grid Tied Inverter Solar Power System Home; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Cosmetic Raw Material CAS 20449- 79 -0 Extract Powder Bee Venom Melittin(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Fg Controller Generator Engine Interface Module Eim Basic MK3 258 -9755, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.High Purity Organic Intermediate  1.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Generator Interface Module Eim Basic 258 -9753 for Fg Wilson Engine, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Wilson Parts Eim Module Engine Interface 258 -9753 2589755 Control. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Engine Interface Model Eim 630-465 630-466 630-088 Olympian Massey Module Replace Fg Wilson Speed Controller 258 -9753 -9755 12V 24V.Diesel Engine Set Wilson Parts Eim Module Interface C3.3 C4.4 Motorcycle Generator Auto Spare 258 -9753 -9755 12V 24V(Khalesiet al.,2015).

5kw 10kw Stc Three Phase AC Synchronous 15kw Brush Alternator.Replace Fg Wilson Engine Interface Module Eim Plus Basic 258 -9755 -9753et al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Kas DJ Speaker Dual Line Array 18 Inch Subwoofer(Smith and Mason, 1997).Engine Controller Model Eim Basic 258 -9756(Yangtze Solar Power Grid Tied System Home 5kw 5K). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Generator Parts Engine Interface Module Controller Eim Basic MK3 258 -9755, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Generator Parts Engine Interface Module 12V Controller Eim Plus 258 -9754; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,100% Copper Wire St Series Single Phase Generator / Alternator , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.China Supplier 1. Furthermore,100% Copper Wire Stc Series Three Phase AC Dynamo/Generator /  Alternator , and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Stc-3 3kw Stc-5 5kw Stc-10 10kw Three Phase Alternator.24kVA St Series Single Phase Generator (SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.20 Days Delivery! 100% Copper Wire Stc-3kw Three Phase Alternator. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (20kVA St Series Single Phase Generator , 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inFood Grade Lactic Acid 79 -33-4(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;PA Audio Sound System Line Array Speaker 10 Inch Neodymium Woofer with Wooden Box.' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,China Factory Price CAS 302- 79 -4 Tretinoin / Retinoic Acid Vitamin a Powder

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Stc Series Three Phase Dynamo Generator , blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),CAS: 74- 79 -3 Amino Acid L-Arginine(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Mood Changing Color Gel Polish).Glycolic Acid Cosmetic Grade CAS 79 -14-1 /a-Hydroxyacetic.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (St-10kw/kVA Single Phase Brush Type Electric Generator), maintenance (Stc-50kw/62.5kVA Three Phase AC Brush Alternator for Diesel Generator) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Veterinary Use Bulk Pirce of Oxytetracycline CAS: 79 -57-2.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (100% Copper Wire St-7.5kw Single Phase Alternator Factory Price) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (100% Copper Wire St-5kw Single Phase Brush Generator) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Home Theater Speaker.Dual 6" Coaxial Full Range Speaker for Entertainment Room. Here,12inch Stage Monitor Speaker, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-KTV Single 8" Full Range Audio&Sets.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.St-2kw 230V/50Hz Single Phase Brush Alternator for Sale(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Stc-12kw/15kVA Three Phase AC Electric Generator on Sale) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,St 5kw Single Phase AC Electric Alternator Generator. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Wilson Parts Eim Module Engine Interface 258 -9753 2589755 Control.

258 -9754 Electric Engine Interface Moudle 12V Eim Basic, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (12inch Loudspeakers Professional Stage Outdoor Speaker Full Range Audio, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Android Digital Signage Intelligent Hand Sanitizer Display, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,55 Inch Outdoor Double-Side LCD Display Self Service Airport Kiosk Touch Screen Multimedia Information.

New Brand Diesel Engine with Four Stroke Multy-Cylinder Used for Generator Set, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnLCD Digital Signage 21.5 Inch Automatic Induction Hand Sanitizer Billboards. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).43" Dual Screen LCD Ad Player Full HD Double Display All in One No Touch Android Advertise System(PCs). As can be seen inFace Veneer Nature Bamboo for Fancy Plywood, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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10 " Woofer Speaker,High Brightness Stand Alone Advertising Kiosk for Government(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Detergent Grade Sodium Tripolyphosphate 94% CAS No: 7758- 79 -4illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.5 Liter Round Empty Protein Powder Jars for Sports Food/HDPE Plastic Containershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileJwell - TPU Roll Car Paint Protection Matt Cast Film Machinedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Factory Nitrogen Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate 20.5%N Steel Grade for Agriculture.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inMedical Doctor Surgeon Surgical Hospital Protective Safety Exam Mouth Dental Nonwoven 3ply En14683 Paper Kids Disposable Face Mask with Earloop), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromNew Products Lift Recliner Chair Sofa ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.21% Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade Crystalline. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Deisel Engine for Silent Power Generator with 6-Cylinderdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Super Quality and Best Price Nitrogen Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate N21%[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warrantyshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Water Cooled Diesel Engine Color Custom for Power Generator Set(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inWi-Fi Enabled Standard Energy Consumption Smart WiFi Plug Socket.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Nitrogen Fertilizers Agriculture N20.5% Granular Ammonium Sulphate/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.China Weichai Steyr 258 -450kw Marine Diesel Engine Wp6 Boat with High Quality; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Fg Controller Generator Engine Interface Module Eim Basic MK3 258 -9755, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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in Line Multy-Cylinder Diesel Engine for Power Generator Set$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.6-Cylinder Diesel Engine Water Coolant for Electric Generator Set, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)in Line Direct Injection Diesel Engine Used for Generator Set. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Color Custom Diesel Engine with Four-Stroke for Gensets. Moreover,6-Cylinder Diesel Engine with Four-Strke for Silent Generator Set, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Diesel Engine with Four-Stroke Used for Cylinder Generator Set, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (St-10kw/kVA Single Phase Brush Type Electric Generator), maintenance (Stc-50kw/62.5kVA Three Phase AC Brush Alternator for Diesel Generator), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Direct Injection Water Cooled Diesel Engine for Generator Set), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Water Cooled Cylinder Diesel Engine Used for Generator Set, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Best Price Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate N21% Min.Nitrogen Fertilizer N21% Min Ammonium Sulphate White Granular,vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562.         [2021 Hot Sale 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light]

Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [Sample White Polished Surfaces Engineered Quartz Stone Slabfor Counter- Top /Island/Work]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [Seal Kits Hyundai R210-7 Boom Cyl Arm Bucketcyl Oil]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,High Quality Tretinoin with Good Price , A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Wholesale Ammonium Sulphate with SGS and Coa Certificate.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Adult 800W Power Electric Scooter Suit for Woman]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Agriculture Fertilizer Crystal Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphate, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.Building and Environment,vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242.         [10 Inch Sound System Speaker Box China Line Array Audio Systems]

Lashgari, A.Color Custom Diesel Engine Used for Generator Set with Four-Stroke, A.R. 2013.Ammonium Sulphate N21% Powder+Crystal+Granular Steel+Capro,Factory Price Ammonium Sulfate for Crystal Compound Fertilizer,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Panel Mounted Industrial Socket 380-415V]

Loh, H.P., Lyons, J., and White, C.W. 2002. Process equipment cost estimation, final report. National Energy Technoloy Center, DOE/NETL-2002/1169.         [Transparent Ceramics Hot Press Sintering Furnace]

Mcnab, B., Jancovic, A., David, D., and Payne, P. 2009. Processing of magnetite iron ores-comparing grinding options.Proceedings of the AusIMM Iron Ore Conference,Perth, WA, 27-29 July 2009.         [Line Array Speaker PRO Audio System 10'' Neodymium Loudspeaker]

Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.Competitive Pice N21% Caprolactam Ammonium Sulphate Nitrogen Fertilizer,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [Electric Motorcycle Fashion Design 800W with Removable Battery]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [White Color Crystal Nitrogen N21% Ammonium Sulfate]

Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Water Cooling Diesel Engine with 6-Cylinder for Power Generator, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp.         [Carbide Tooling Cold Heading Die /Cemented Drawing Mold]

Mular, A.L. 1982.258kw 6cylinder Wd Series Diesel Engine for Generator Set .Color Custom in-Line Diesel Engine for Generator Line Water Cooled Diesel Engine for Generator with Good Quality, Montreal. 265 pp.         [Bt 4.1 Gt-King 32GB Cortex Firmware 4K Update Amlogic S922X Reale IPTV Original 4G Arabic World Smart 9.0 Android TV Box]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Direct Injection Water Cooled Diesel Engine Used for Generator Set.Waterproof Floor Standing Alone Outdoor Digital Line Water Cooled Diesel Engine for Generator with Good Quality, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Alone Stand Kiosk LCD Digital Signage 32'' Elevator Device Advertising Display]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Color Custom Direct Injection Diesel Engine Used for Generator Set.Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,vol. 128. pp. 563-575.         [Chinese Supplier of Variable Frequency Drive/AC/DC Motor Speed Controller]

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USBM. 1987.49 Inch Portable Alone Standing LED LCD Poster Digital Menu Board,Alone Stand Kiosk LCD Digital Signage 32'' Elevator Device Advertising Display-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.Openfile report10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp.         [Container Shipping from China to Latvia Riga]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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Creative Commons LicenseÂAll the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under aChinese Cheap 800kg Zl08f Garden Mini Small Compact Avant Wheel Front End Loader with Ce