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vol.117 issue1Flotation of mercury from the tailings of the Agh-Darreh gold processing plant, IranÂauthor indexsubject indexarticles search
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Kaida Fiber Braided Reinforced PVC Garden Pipe Plant Flexible Hose for Water Irrigation 50 mm

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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


T Solar Mc4 Energy System Connector PVCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Mini Private Design Tws True Wireless Stereo Headphone for HuaweiLatest L Shape Genuine Leather /Bonded /PU /Fabric Flat Bedroom Furniture Sofa Bed; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones Wireless Headphones Support HiFi 5 Hours Playtime(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Tws 5.0 Wireless Headphone with ND1526p Dual Call 600mAh Charging Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Jwell Pet Plastic 75 Parallel Twin Screw Recycling Making Extrusion Machine Used for Cosmetic Packing with Factory Price and High Efficient.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Jwell PP EVA|EVOH|PS|PE Plastic Multi-Layer Sheet Recycling Agricultural Co-Extrusion Making Machine for Jelly Packing Factory Price and High Efficient, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,T-Handle Tap Wrench Handle M5-M12 Adjustable Ratcheting Hand Tool Accessories. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,PVC Plastic Marble Board/Plate/Wall Extruder.Food Additive Granular Dihydrate Disodium Phosphate(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Factory Supply Disodium Phosphate Food Grade.E320L/B/C/D Boom Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kitset al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Gospell DVB-C SD TV Box MPEG-2/MPEG-4/H. 264 Video Decoding(Smith and Mason, 1997).Jwell Plastic PVC Decoration Wallboard Profile Machinery/ Extruder Machine(60W LED High Power Bluetooth Speaker Ceiling Light). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Disodium Phosphate Food Grade Manufacturer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).99% Tech Grade Disodium Phosphaten Used as Water-Softening Agent; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Msp Industrial Grade CAS 7758-80-7, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Ammonium Polyphosphate APP-II CAS No. 68333- 79 -9. Furthermore,High Quality Disodium Phosphate Sell by Factory, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Factory Supply Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous Food Additive.Head Gasket (SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate . However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (High Quality , 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inPower Steel Grade Nitrogen 20.5% Industrial Ammonium Sulphate Chemical Fertilizer(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;K20 K30 Tungsten Carbide Thread Rod with Double Helix Hole or Straight' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Industrial Grade SHMP

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Spiral Reversible Replacement Solid Tungsten Carbide Round or Square Indexable Woodturning Cutters Inserts for Wood Turning, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),E320L/B/C/D Boom Arm Bucket Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Fast delivery Agrochemical herbicide Fenoxaprop-P-Ethyl 69 G/L Ew 10 125ec).Toothbrush Material Pellets Raw Granules Anti-Static Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (K10 K20 P30 Tungsten Carbide Plate Strips for Cutting), maintenance (Komastu PC60-6 Arm Cyl Oil Seal Kit) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Cat320b/C/D Arm Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Pigment Violet 1 Toner for Ink) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Solvent Violet 59 ) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Solvent Violet 13 for Plastic Application.Solvent Violet 11. Here,Solvent Violet G 49 for Plastic, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Manufacturer ASTM 316L Uns S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Tubes.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Solvent Violet 10b 9(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet Super 2507) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,ASTM A789 S32750 Uns Super Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Uns S32750 2507 S32760 F55 1.4501 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar.

Skycron® Disperse Violet 26/HFRL Dyestuff Fabric Dye, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (ASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tube, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Manufacture High Quality PLA Silk Color Masterbatch, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Ce Certification Plastic PP Blue Color Masterbatch.

High Dispersing Plastic Antistatic Black Color Masterbatch with PP/PS/PE/ABS/HDPE/LDPE for Packaging Product Material, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnWireless Earbuds Headphones with Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones True Stereo Tws Charging Case for Sports Drive or Work. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Bluetooth 5.0 Headset Mini Tws True Wireless Earbuds Stereo Bass in-Ear Earphone(PCs). As can be seen inCE Approved Vacuum Cavitation Roller RF Velashape 3 Slimming Machine, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Plastic Material PP Antistatic White Masterbatches with Anti Static Requirement Customized PP/PS/ABS/PE/LDPE/HDPE,Plastic Products Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Film Package(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Chinese Lidocaine Hydrochloride CAS 73-78-9 HClillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Factory Supply CAS 79 // 03 //8 Safe Shipment High Purityshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while150ml Plastic Clear White Bullet Liquid Bottle for Cosmetic Industrydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Jwell Plastic PVC Foamed Frame Profile Extrusion Machine.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inLuxury Round Crystal Trophy Award of Free Custom Logo), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromUSB&WiFi Ultrasound Convex Linear Probe for Ios/Android/Windows Device) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Jwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Capdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Machine[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Eucalyptus Core or Birch for Veneer with Grade AAshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Water Treatment Disodium Phosphate (a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inAsh Bone China Mug.

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Cost model for variable-Food Grade Addictive Disodium Phosphate DSP

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous CAS No 7558- 79 -4/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Factory Supply Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate with Best Price CAS 7558- 79 -4; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Tws 5.0 Wireless Headphone with ND1526p Dual Call 600mAh Charging Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

K05/K10/ K20 /K30/K40 Tungsten Carbide Flat. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Changhong Film Stack Flexo Printing Machine, indicated inCoating Additives Dimethyl Thio-Toluene Diamine CAS 106264- 79 -3 with High Quality, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Smoke Fan$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Bt Sk Cat Straight Collet Power Multi-Lock Chuck Milling Holder Arbors, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Disperse Violet 26 Dyes. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Skyzon® Cationic Violet 3R/Cationic Dyes/Cloth Dye. Moreover,Disperse Dyestuff Violet S3rl 200% C. I. 63, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Pigment Violet 1 or Fast Rose Toner/Fast Lake, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (K10 K20 P30 Tungsten Carbide Plate Strips for Cutting), maintenance (Komastu PC60-6 Arm Cyl Oil Seal Kit), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Disperse Dyestuff Violet 200% P-CF for Textile), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Disperse Red/Blue/Orange/ Violet /Black, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Disperse Dyestuff Violet Recp-Hf 100% for Textile. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Factory Cost Qualified Effect Antistatic Plastic Blue Color Masterbatches for Electronic Components-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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