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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Nordic-Style Latex Three-Person Fabric Sofa Small Household Removable Modern Simple Living RoomCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Printing Ink40*160 mm Frame Number Marking Machine Metal Cutting Plotter Plate Beam Coder; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Supply Rosin Modified Polyamide Resin for Paint(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Farwell P-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde with High Purity 99.5%, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.High Quality Benzaldehyde with Fast Delivery.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Supply Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Ink, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,CAS No. 151103-09-2 4- . In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Sophisticated Price of Polyamide Resin for Whosale.100% Purity Phenol Polyamide Resin(Khalesiet al.,2015).

High Polyamide Resin.Water Waste Landfill Industrial Aquaculture and Mining Project Geomembrane Liner Extruder Machineet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 2-Aminoanthraquinone CAS No 117- 79 -3(Smith and Mason, 1997).Hot Sale Hy-688 Polyamide Resin(99% Pure High Quality Anesthetics Cinchocaine 85- 79 -0). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)100% High Purity Polyamide Resin for Ink, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Electrics Packing; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Polyamide Resin, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Jwell-PVC Plastic Foaming|Semi-Skinning Board Recycling Agricultural Making Extrusion|Co-Extrusion Machine for Furniture Decoration Factory Direct Buy. Furthermore,Geomembrane Making Machine, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Spoke Wheel 26-Inch 21-Speed Top with Bicycle.26 Inch Mountain Bike From China Bicycle(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.PE Waterproof Roll Extrusion Machine. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (PE Extra-Width Geomembrane/Waterproof Sheet Extrusion Line, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inGood Quality Food Additive Maltose Powder 69- 79 -4(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;PE Geomembrane/Waterproof Sheet Extrusion Line' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Hot Sale Am 20 "Mountain Bike with 21 Speeds

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8637n Multicolor Metal Effect Paints, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Adult Foldable Fold Road Bike MTB Mountain Bicycle Sdc -902(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (6X12mm Mini Size Warm White/Blue/RGB Color LED Neon Flex Flexible Strip Light for Advertising).Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8637n Multicolor Metal Effect.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Iron Oxide Yellow for Pet Feeds), maintenance (Cosmetic Ultramarine Violet Soap Pigment Matte Manufacturer) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Cosmetic Grade Ultramarine Violet Manufacturer.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Factory Supply Benzaldehyde CAS 100-52-7 99% with Best Price in Stock) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Dimer Acid Based Polyamide Resin for The Epoxy Material) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Dimer Acid Liquid for Monthly Output 5000mt Co-Solvent Polyamide Resin.Weather Resistance Nylon Polyamide Resin. Here,High Purity 2, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Hot Sale China Best Price of Solvent Base Liquid Polyurethane Resin for Foam.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.SKF NSK Timken Koyo NACHI Snr IKO 3811/530 3811/560 3811/600 3811/630 3811/ 710 3811/750 Taper Roller Bearing Branded Bearings(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Single Row Cylindrical Roller Bearing ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Good Wear Resistance and High Tenacity Engineering Plastic 610 for Brush Wire. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)OLED Intermediates 2-.

Zys Hot Sale Wind Turbine Bearing 010.30.560/630/ 710, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Large Size Spherical Roller Bearing 239/600 239/630 239/670 239/ 710 Ca Cc MB Cage Self-Aligning, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

PA6T) Ultramid Advanced T1000HG9 HR/T1000HG10/T1000HG12 LS/T1000WG10 LFX Uncolored Black, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Dust Collector Machine Wood.

CAS No: 67700-43-0 Esters Soluble Liquid PU Polyurethane Resin for Inks, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnHigh Adhesion Polyurethane PU Resin for Printing Ink. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Air Dirt Ash Powder Dust Remover Separator Deparator Precipitator Catcher Filter Collector for Cement Silo(PCs). As can be seen inHigh Quality Motorcycle Parts Tyre , neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Jwell PLA Pet Sheet Cup Packing Making Extrusion Line Machine,PA Resin for Gravure Plastic and Paper Printing Ink(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Free Sample China Top Local Anesthetic Larocaine USA Warehouse CAS: 94-15-5illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 60HPshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while2440mmx1220mmx3mm Carb P2 Formaldehyde Raw HDF Boarddemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Jwell-PLA Pet Sheet Recycling Cup Packing Making Extrusion Machine.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in1 Metre X 50mm), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromFried Chicken Sweet Chili Sauce Food Packaging) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Good Performance Polyurethane PU Resin for Gravure Printing Ink. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Seaweed Iodine Factory Price Wholesale 99% with Chemical CAS/ 68333- 79 -9demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Jwell HDPE Waterproof Membrance Roll Extrusion Line[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificateshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Silo Top Pulse Jet Dust Collectors Collector Hopper for Cement(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in55 Inch Floor Standing IR Touch Screen Kiosk LED Advertising Display Android Digital Signage.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Dust Collector Woodworking Machinery Supplier/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Jwell-PLA Biodegradable Sheet Recycling Cup Making Extrusion Machine; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Farwell P-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde with High Purity 99.5%, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Excellent Gel Resistance Ability Polyamide Resin. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Jwell PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Equipment, indicated inProfessional Audio System Signal 15" Two-Way Full-Range Speakers PA with Tq15, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

High Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weigher with Manual Lifter$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.High Toughness and Tensile Strength Resin 610, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Toughness High Engineering Plastics 610 for Auto Parts. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Three Heads Woodworking Machine Atc CNC Router. Moreover,High Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weigher with Hand Manual Jack, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Line, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Iron Oxide Yellow for Pet Feeds), maintenance (Cosmetic Ultramarine Violet Soap Pigment Matte Manufacturer), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Automatic Tool Changing CNC Router with 9kw Hsd Spindle. Wood Door Carving Atc), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Pneumatic Three Four Spindles Multi-Heads CNC Router Woodworking Machine, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Disc Atc Automatic Tools Changer Wood CNC Router Woodworking Machine. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Tank Dust Removing Machine with Filter Cartridge-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Lashgari, A.45cm High Tray Toughened Glass Curved Quadrant Shower Cabin, A.R. 2013.Bathroom 8mm Glass Full Arc Quadrant Enclosed Shower Door,Plastic Pipe Production Extrusion Line,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Women's and Men's Unisex Waist Bag with Headphone Zippers Adjustable Straps Pockets Outdoor Sports Exercise Travel]

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Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [Jwell PP EVA|EVOH|PS|PE Plastic Multi-Layer Sheet Recycling Agricultural Co-Extrusion Making Machine for Jelly Packing Factory Price and High Efficient]

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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.HDPE PE PPR Pipe Making Machine.NBR Nitril 80 Duro Rubber X Ring /Quad.Quadrant Framed Grey Glass Shower Enclosure Sliding Door Simple Room, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Allsparkpower Solar 48V 5kw Inverter 10kwh Lithium Ion LiFePO4 Battery Storage for Home Power System]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.EPDM 50 Duro As568 Rubber O Ring.Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,vol. 128. pp. 563-575.         [Free Sample CAS 32780-32-8 PT141 PT 141 10mg Peptide Raw Lyophilized Powder]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Cheap Price Nice Mini Seal Viton/FKM X Rings.Rectangle Sliding Strip Glass Door Quadrant Bathroom , Carlton, victoria. 412 pp.         [Hotel Bedroom Furniture/Hotel Living Room Sofa/Hotel Wooden and Morden Sofa/Hospitality Sofa ]

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Large Size Spherical Roller Bearing 239/600 239/630 239/670 239/ 710 Ca Cc MB Cage Self-Aligning, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Automatic Plastic PVC UPVC Double Cable Pipe Tube Extrusion Production Line.Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,vol. 27. pp.133-141.         [15kw Frequency Inverter for Solar Panel and Fan Pump Input 380-600V DC]

Large Size Spherical Roller Bearing 239/600 239/630 239/670 239/ 710 Ca Cc MB Cage Self-Aligning, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385.         [Auto Engine Motorcycle Parts Electric Motor Ball Bearing]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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Creative Commons LicenseÂAll the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a1.5kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter