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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**WiFi Probe Type 2 in 1 Double Head Wireless Mini Color Doppler UltrasoundCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Bocinas Prosound 18 Pulgadas PRO Speaker Ruidoso Audio Subwoofer Parlente Hot Sale****Industry Grade Ammonium Polyphosphate; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Professional Audio PA Subwoofer Component Speakers Bocinas(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,L18 /86130 100%Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1000W RMS Subwoofer, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Additive PE Green Color Masterbatches Manufacturer.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

L18 /86131 Falante Professional 18inch Subwoofer 700W New Product China Supplier Hot Sale, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,L18 /86138-Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1500W RMS Neodymium Subwoofer. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,L18 / 6620- 18 Polegadas PRO Audio Subwoofer Alto Falante 650W.OEM Custom Square Rectangle Round Rubber Cover(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

N21% White Granular Ammonium Sulphate.Vegetable and Fruit Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate Nitrogen 21%*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Public Address System 10 Inch 100V 8ohm High Power 120W Wide Frequency in Ceiling Mount Speaker with Fire Back Dome(Smith and Mason, 1997).Agriculture Fertilizer N 21% Ammonium Sulfate(25kw Electromagnetic Induction Heater for Tools Welding). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)21% Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade Crystalline, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Agriculture Fertilizer Nitrogen 21% Ammonium Sulfate China Factory; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Power Steel Grade Nitrogen 20.5% Industrial Ammonium Sulphate Chemical Fertilizer, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.White Extrusion Granular Ammonium Sulphate China Factory. Furthermore,Granular Grade Ammonium Sulphate N20.5% Nitrogen Fertilizer, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Nitrogen Fertilizer Color Granular Ammonium Sulphate 20.5+24s.China Suppliers Alone Type Wraped Beam Disc Machenism Padlock(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Dust Proof Steel Shackle Padlocks with Master Key. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Padlock-G38PDP, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inJAC300 Series Frequency Converter Three Phase Solar Pump Inverter Power Supply(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Breaker Lock' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Engine Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz Om906 La K27.2 Om366/Om642/Om362/Om441/Om442/Om447/Om457

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Gt1544sm Tdi Engine Bnm 045253019d 733783-5008s 733783-5007s Turbo, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Universal Turbo T3t4 T04e T3.63 Ar + 76mm 3" Intercooler Pipe Piping Kit(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (High Temperature Gear Pump for Chemical Industry).Truck Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz/Chrysler/Dodge Om647 Gt2256 6470900280 736088-0003.

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (FPM FKM Viton EPDM SBR Cr Silicone NBR Rubber Parts), maintenance (Gt1541V 704765-0003/708450-0018 Turbine Wheel Shaft for 700960-0011) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Gt1544sm 733783-5007s Turbo for Volkswagen Fox 1.4L Tdi Engine Bnm.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Cosmetic Grade 99% Purity All Trans Retinoic Acid 302- 79 -4 Tretinoin/Vitamin a) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Customized Rubber Spacer Black Silicone Bushing) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Gym Rubber Flooring Floor Mat Roll.Ihi Turbocharger 2001-04 Peugeot. Here,Gt1749V , separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-2004-10 for Volkswagen.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Borg Warner BV45 Turbo 5303-988-0337 Core Chra for Nissan(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-T250-04 452055-5004s Turbocharger for Gemini III Engine) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Gtb1749vk Turbo Cartridge 798128-0004 for 2011- Peugeot Boxer. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Gt3776D 466819-5004s 1823560c92 Turbo for Ford F650 Navistar.

Gt1749vk 798015-0002 A6710900380 Turbo for Ssang-Yong Korando C200 2.0 D20dtf Engine, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Gt1544V 740611-5002s 28201-2A400 Turbo for Hyundai Verna, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Aftermarket BV45 53039880337 Turbocharger for 2010-12 Nissan Pathfinder Navara Engine, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Factory Supply Glycyl-L-Tyrosine.

Dl-Isoleucine Powder CAS 443- 79 -8, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Glycyl- L-Tyrosine; 658- 79 -7. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).L-Pyroglutamic Acid(PCs). As can be seen inMatt Food Packaging Child Proof Zipper Plastic Stand up Pouch Water &Air & Smelly Kraft Film Laminated Food&Tea&Coffee&Candy Bag, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Dl-Isoleucine Powder CAS Number 443- 79 -8*

98% Uvarigranol B\C\D\E Standard Reference Materials Plant Extracts,Longyu Produce Nano Copper Oxide Nanoparticles 1317-38-0(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Waterproof Loudspeaker Wall Mounter 15inch Mq-15cpillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Whole Sale Hammerhead 150cc Go Kart with Partsshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileChina Wolf Wl80 Articulated Mini Loaderdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,High Purity 99.0%Min. Ademetionine Disulfate Tosylate .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inWheel Alignment Wld-Tr-3 Aligner for Truck), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from1L Tin Can for Camellia Oil ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Centella Asiatica Extract 99% Asiaticoside 16830-15-2*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Crovell Supply Raw Material CAS 104-29-0 Chlorphenesin for Cosmetic. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Launch Thinkcar Thinkdiag Full System OBD2 Diagnostic Tool Powerful Than Easydiag with 3 Free Softwaredemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Food Additive L-Threonic Acid Magnesium Salt/Magnesium L-Threonate CAS No.: 778571-57-6[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Homeshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Polyethylene Green Color Masterbatch(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inTmtd-80 Prepared Rubber Accelerator Factory Price.

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*Cost model for variable-Pipe Bevelling Machine *

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].ISO Certificated Company Supply Skin Whitening Retinoic Acid Powder/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Green Plastic Masterbatch Blowing Film Grade; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,L18 /86130 100%Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1000W RMS Subwoofer, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Green Color HDPE Masterbatch. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Blue Masterbatch for Film, indicated in1L Empty Round Brake Fluid Can Boxes, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Yellow Color Plastic Masterbatch$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Yellow HDPE Masterbatch, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Universal LPG Gas Completed ECU Conversion Kit. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Act Best Seller CNG LPG Gas Car Emulator. Moreover,CNG/LPG Rail Injector Type Gas 4 Cylinders, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Act MP 48 ECU Switch/Act 2568d Switch, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (FPM FKM Viton EPDM SBR Cr Silicone NBR Rubber Parts), maintenance (Gt1541V 704765-0003/708450-0018 Turbine Wheel Shaft for 700960-0011), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Fuel Gas Cylinder ECU 2568d Map Sensors), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Motorcycle Act 2568d 6cyl 8cyl ECU Conversion Kit, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Auto Vehicle Gas Conversion Kit CNG Seqential Injection Kits. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Electric Pipe End Bevelling Machine-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Bocinas Prosound 18 Pulgadas PRO Speaker Ruidoso Audio Subwoofer Parlente Hot Sale, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Act CNG LPG Fuel System 2568cyl ECU Kits.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [Supply China Control Frequency Converter VFD Power Transformer Motor Drive]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

150cc Motorcycle9L Tight Head Tin Can with Tap for Oilve Oil Ink and PaintCorresponding author