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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



CE Approved Wolf Wl80 Zl08 Mini Wheel Loader for FarmCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Digital Display Superior 316L integrated Pressure TransducerRaw Petro High Temperature Sapphire Pressure Transmitter; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Waterproof Pool Lamp(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,RGB High Lumen Resin Filled PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Waterproof Underwater Light, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Gy6 125cc Sproty Scooter /Motorcycle.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Top Grade Cross-Country Motorcycle Tire 120/90-18, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Gy6 Engine 150cc Gasoline Scooter for Adults. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Flat film Clamp Hygienic Pressure Sensor Transmitter.Steel Wheel Hub Buggy 150cc ATV(Khalesiet al.,2015).

150cc 200cc Gas ATV Quad for Adults.Hot Selling to Nigeria Market Manufacture Motorbike Tyre 3.50-18et al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Supply China Control Frequency Converter VFD Power Transformer Motor Drive(Smith and Mason, 1997).Raw Petro High Temperature Sapphire Pressure Transmitter(2021 New Arrival Malaysian Eyebrow). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Cheap Adult 150cc ATV Farm/Quad Bike 200cc for Sale, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).EEC Euro 5 Gy6 -125cc Motorcycle Scooters; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Gy6 Engine Gas Scooter, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.150cc 200cc Gy6 4 Wheel Chain/Shaft Drive Gas Powered Sport Quad Bike ATV. Furthermore,Gy6 -50cc OEM Gas Scooter, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-150cc off Road Utility ATV with Reverse .Commander 200cc ATV off-Road Quad China 150cc 180cc 110cc Kids(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Gy6 150cc Gasoline Scooter. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Zongshen 150cc Cargo Tricycle with Top Cover, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inConical Twin Screw PVC /CPVC Plastic Extruder/PVC Pipe Extrusion Machine Production Line(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Gy6 150cc Gas Scooter' names:

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Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Gy6 -50cc Scooter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),China 150cc Gy6 Gasoline Scooter(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (UL Ce Double Lines 240LEDs/M SMD3528 RGBA LED Strip Light).Euro 4 Certificate.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (2021 Hot Sale 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light), maintenance (High Quality 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,150cc Gasoline Scooter with Efi ECU Delphi. Rongmao Efi..076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (High Performance Motorcycle Tire for Senegal ) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Double Rear Tyre Tricycle with 300cc Water Cooling Engine) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.300cc Gas Aluminum Adult Tricycle Reverse Truck Cargo .Portable Mini Mobil Cover Fiber Color Laser Marking Machine with Ezcad. Here,12" Mono Base Hair Topper Best Quality Virgin Remy Human #4 Chocolate Brown Straight Real Hairpieces Factory Wholesale Price Accessories, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-300cc Five Wheel Gas Cargo 3 Motorcycle for Adults .

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Portable Automatic Ultrasound Bone Analyzer Densitometer(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-300cc New Classic Cheap Cargo Tricycle ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Voomaster Brand Big Diamonds Tread Pattern Motorcycle Tyre 3.00- 17 . MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)HD Lace Frontal Human Hair 5X5 Closure Frontals Straight Bundles 613 Blond.

Ophthalmic Pachymeter , the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (6A Grade Indian Beard, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Pneumatic Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Marking Coder, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,50W LED Bulb Marking.

50W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for PVC/ Plastic/ Stainless Steel/ Silicon, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnFlexible Label Laser Marking Machine for Airbag Warning Labels. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).WiFi Wireless Ultrasound Linear Color Doppler USB 192 Elements Probe(PCs). As can be seen inWholesale Matelized Bottom Gusset Stand up Barrier Exit Zipper Food Packaging Mylar Bag Custom Printing Colorful Aluminum Foil Laminated Plastic Container, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Containershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileHigh Quality Chemical Product Antioxidant Irganox 1076 CAS 2082- 79 -3demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Mini Handle Electric DOT Peen Marking Machine.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in1 Piece Heart Shaped Makeup Brush Foundation Powder Blush Cosmetic Tool), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromConstruction Equipment Mini Wheel Loader with Quick Hitch) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Pin Machine Suppliers Marker Systems. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Motorcycle Stator Coil/Magneto/Bobina Del Estator/Moto Partes/Repuestos Gy6 8coilsdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,USB&WiFi Ultrasound Convex Linear Probe for Ios/Android/Windows Device[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.6000W 200V-240V AC Single Phase on Gird/ Grid- Tied Solar Power Energy Systemshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.1L Rectangular Olive Oil Tin 1800ml Packaging with Imported Plastic Spout Guangdong(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHigh Quality Fantasy Brown Granite for Kitchen Tops/ Vanity Tops.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].4u 16 in 1 Agile CATV RF Modulator Channels/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Thinner Plain Color 1L Metal Can with Screw Cap; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,RGB High Lumen Resin Filled PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Waterproof Underwater Light, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Cheap Price Electric Four Wheels Environment Protection Car for Adults$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Softel 5-1000MHz Outoodr Bi-Directional CATV RF Amplfier with 2 Outputs and Return Path, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Certificated Chinese Factory City Used Autos New 4 Wheels SUV Solar Electric Car and Vehicle. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Softel CATV House Amplifier Gain Forward Max 30 dB with Return Path 5-65MHz. Moreover,Gain 30dB 1 Output CATV House User Amplifier with AGC, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Softel 24 Channel Optional RF Fixed Analog Modulator, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (2021 Hot Sale 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light), maintenance (High Quality 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Cummins diesel engine 4918416 inline 5 diagnostic tool datalink adapter), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Solar Energy System 3kwh Power Home Built in Inverter, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Digital Display Superior 316L integrated Pressure Transducer, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-2021 High Quality Marine 1400W Hybrid Power Inverter Solar System Portable with 3kwh Lithium Battery.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Living Room Lounge Furniture Sofa Fabric 3 Seater Couch]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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