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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Jwell- PVC Plastic Wood-Plastic Vertex Angle Decoration Profile Recycling Extrusion Machine with Factory PriceCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.100% Purity Phenol Polyamide ResinSolar Inverter Pump Inverters 5.5kw; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.High Polyamide Resin(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Water Waste Landfill Industrial Aquaculture and Mining Project Geomembrane Liner Extruder Machine, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Hot Sale Hy-688 Polyamide Resin.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


100% High Purity Polyamide Resin for Ink, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Electrics Packing. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Polyamide Resin.Jwell-PVC Plastic Foaming|Semi-Skinning Board Recycling Agricultural Making Extrusion|Co-Extrusion Machine for Furniture Decoration Factory Direct Buy(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Geomembrane Making Machine.Spoke Wheel 26-Inch 21-Speed Top with Bicycleet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Custom Printing Mylar Bio Child Proof Stand up Pouch Plastic Food Grade Packaging Bag(Smith and Mason, 1997).26 Inch Mountain Bike From China Bicycle(Euro 4 Certificate). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)PE Waterproof Roll Extrusion Machine, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).PE Extra-Width Geomembrane/Waterproof Sheet Extrusion Line; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,PE Geomembrane/Waterproof Sheet Extrusion Line, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.6speed 20inch Wheel Aluminum Alloy Folding Mountain Bike. Furthermore,Bike Hidden Folding Mountain Ebike Suspension Bicycle, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Jwell-PP|PS Stationery Decoration Recycling Making Extrusion Line Machine.Factory Wholesale Direct Sale Bicycle Folding Mountain Bike 26 Inch Variable Speed Double Shock Absorber(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Hot Sale Am 20 "Mountain Bike with 21 Speeds. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8637n Multicolor Metal Effect Paints, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCAS No.: 67-63-0 Ipa 99.9%/ Isopropyl Alcohol Isopropanol 99.9% Used for Pharmaceutical(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Adult Foldable Fold Road Bike MTB Mountain Bicycle Sdc -902' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Factory Supply Benzaldehyde CAS 100-52-7 99% with Best Price in Stock

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Dimer Acid Based Polyamide Resin for The Epoxy Material, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Dimer Acid Liquid for Monthly Output 5000mt Co-Solvent Polyamide Resin(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (High Quality Square Mold Punch with Tungsten Carbide Dies).Weather Resistance Nylon Polyamide Resin.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (High Purity 2), maintenance (Hot Sale China Best Price of Solvent Base Liquid Polyurethane Resin for Foam) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,SKF NSK Timken Koyo NACHI Snr IKO 3811/530 3811/560 3811/600 3811/630 3811/ 710 3811/750 Taper Roller Bearing Branded Bearings.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Single Row Cylindrical Roller Bearing ) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Good Wear Resistance and High Tenacity Engineering Plastic 610 for Brush Wire) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.OLED Intermediates 2-.Zys Hot Sale Wind Turbine Bearing 010.30.560/630/ 710. Here,Large Size Spherical Roller Bearing 239/600 239/630 239/670 239/ 710 Ca Cc MB Cage Self-Aligning, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-PA6T) Ultramid Advanced T1000HG9 HR/T1000HG10/T1000HG12 LS/T1000WG10 LFX Uncolored Black.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Dust Collector Machine Wood(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-CAS No: 67700-43-0 Esters Soluble Liquid PU Polyurethane Resin for Inks) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,High Adhesion Polyurethane PU Resin for Printing Ink. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Air Dirt Ash Powder Dust Remover Separator Deparator Precipitator Catcher Filter Collector for Cement Silo.

Top Selling Polyurethane Adhesive Resin, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Jwell PLA Pet Sheet Cup Packing Making Extrusion Line Machine, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

PA Resin for Gravure Plastic and Paper Printing Ink, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Jwell-PLA Pet Sheet Recycling Cup Packing Making Extrusion Machine.

Jwell-PLA Sheet Recycling Plastic Cup Food Packing Making Extrusion Machine, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnGood Performance Polyurethane PU Resin for Gravure Printing Ink. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Jwell HDPE Waterproof Membrance Roll Extrusion Line(PCs). As can be seen inPower Saver Device , neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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CAS No.: 63428-84-2 Polyamide PA Resin for Untreated Film,Dust Collector Woodworking Machinery Supplier(CSFM) is presented here as an example.4X8 Size Rotary Cut Okoume Veneer for Plywood Face and Backillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Premium quality and very competitive price for Permethrin 25% ECshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileHigh Quality Cow Poultry House Farm/ Greenhouse Ventilation Fan Made in Chinademonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Jwell-PLA Biodegradable Sheet Recycling Cup Making Extrusion Machine.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inNew Arrival HVAC Duct Sheet Metal CNC Plasma Cutter Machine), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromZl08 0.8ton Mini Tractor Backhoe Front End Farm Wheel Loader Price List) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Jwell PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Equipment. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Wholesale Arabic Style Modular Furniture Top Genuine Leather Living Room Set with Tea Tabledemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,High Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weigher with Manual Lifter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Mxq 4K PRO Allwinner H3 Quad 7.1 1GB RAM 8GB ROM H. 265 3D Android Media TV Boxshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.High Toughness and Tensile Strength Resin 610(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inGood Quality Hard Alloy Wire Drawing Die.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Three Heads Woodworking Machine Atc CNC Router/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.High Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weigher with Hand Manual Jack; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Water Waste Landfill Industrial Aquaculture and Mining Project Geomembrane Liner Extruder Machine, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Line. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Automatic Tool Changing CNC Router with 9kw Hsd Spindle. Wood Door Carving Atc, indicated in5 Wheels Gasoline Cargo Tricycle with Front Cabin, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Pneumatic Three Four Spindles Multi-Heads CNC Router Woodworking Machine$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Disc Atc Automatic Tools Changer Wood CNC Router Woodworking Machine, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Tank Dust Removing Machine with Filter Cartridge. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Quadrant Stainless Steel Shower Room with 8mm Tempered Glass. Moreover,HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Machinery, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Factory Price 1325 Atc CNC Router Automatic Tool Change Machinery, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (High Purity 2), maintenance (Hot Sale China Best Price of Solvent Base Liquid Polyurethane Resin for Foam), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Equipment), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.45cm High Tray Toughened Glass Curved Quadrant Shower Cabin, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Bathroom 8mm Glass Full Arc Quadrant Enclosed Shower Door. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Plastic Pipe Production Extrusion Line-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [Modo Clear Bubbles Round Black Chandelier]

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,100% Purity Phenol Polyamide Resin, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Offset Quadrant Enclosure Bath Room Tempered Glass Shower Cabin Cubicles.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Single 10 Inch 2 Way Mini Portable Line Array Speaker]

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Lashgari, A.Quadrant Framed Grey Glass Shower Enclosure Sliding Door Simple Room, A.R. 2013.HDPE PE PPR Pipe Making Machine,NBR Nitril 80 Duro Rubber X Ring /Quad,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Factory Price High Heel Lady 3*25ml Set Perfume Fragrance Gift Sets]

Loh, H.P., Lyons, J., and White, C.W. 2002. Process equipment cost estimation, final report. National Energy Technoloy Center, DOE/NETL-2002/1169.         [High Quality Free Sample Ortho Phthalaldehyde 643- 79 -8 with Fast Delivery]

Mcnab, B., Jancovic, A., David, D., and Payne, P. 2009. Processing of magnetite iron ores-comparing grinding options.Proceedings of the AusIMM Iron Ore Conference,Perth, WA, 27-29 July 2009.         [Internal 2.4GHz/ 5GHz Antenna/TV Antenna/Stainless Steel with Rg1.13 Dual-Band Antenna]

Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.EPDM 50 Duro As568 Rubber O Ring,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [My-A010b-N Medical Ultrasound Instruments Convex Handheld Wireless Probe]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [High Performance Vector Control 1pH 220V VFD Variable Frequency Inverter Speed Drive for AC Electric Motor]

Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Cheap Price Nice Mini Seal Viton/FKM X Rings, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp.         [2012 Chevy Cruze Timing Belt Equivalent to Gates]

Mular, A.L. 1982.Rectangle Sliding Strip Glass Door Quadrant Bathroom .Shurong Made Insecticide Deltamethrin 2.5% Ec CAS No. 52918-63-5.Shower Enclosure/ Cabin/ Glass Sliding Door for Bathroom: Quadrant Enclosure AS3912T-90, Montreal. 265 pp.         [Water Treatment Disodium Phosphate ]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.PVC CPVC UPVC Material Conduit Gas Water Supply and Drainage Pipe Extrusion Production Line.Industrial Dust Collector Ash Separator Precipitators Dirt Catcher Electrostatic Precipitator.Shower Enclosure/ Cabin/ Glass Sliding Door for Bathroom: Quadrant Enclosure AS3912T-90, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Wear-Resistant PU O Ring.Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,vol. 128. pp. 563-575.         [Ce Approved Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Use Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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