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## Blue Aventurine Backlit Stone Slab for Counter Top

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Aftermarket BV45 53039880337 Turbocharger for 2010-12 Nissan Pathfinder Navara EngineCost modelling for flotation machines**

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Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.45cm Offset Satellite Dish TV Antennas(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2.4-2.5GHz/5-5.8GHz Dual Frequency WiFi Antenna Internet for Things.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

E3/L3 17.5-25 20.5-25 1800-25 Durable Tyres for Scrapers, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,C Band Satellite TV Antenna 150cm. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Eougem Original Cheap Radlader 0.8ton with Standard Bucket Made in China.Dsola ODM/OEM Design High Efficient Mc4 Connector 3 in 1(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Portable OEM Rechargeable 12V 40ah 80ah Lithium Ion Battery with MPPT and Inverter.Mc4t-Branch Connector for Parallel Solar Panel Pair Male and Female*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Motorcycle Plane Bearing Spare Parts for Gy6 125-Oumurs(Smith and Mason, 1997).4000W/5000W off Grid Tied Solar Power System(Pharmaceutical CAS 5413-5-8 BMK Ethyl 2-Phenylacetoacetate). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Internet TV Box Linux IPTV Zgemma I55, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).L-Guard Wheel Loader L-5 OTR 45/65-45 Cheap Wholesale Tyres; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,High Quality 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.24V 40ah Lithium Iron Battery for Electric Bike. Furthermore,Dsola Chinese Supplier Multipurpose Mc4 Y Branch Connector, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Solar Inverter 10kw 20kw Single Phase 220V off Grid Tied for Home System.Dsola Customized High Heat Resistance 2 Pins Mc4 Solar Connector(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp Underwater LED Light 18watt 12V RGB with Two Years Warranty. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (2074 Growatt Inverter 9kw on Grid 9000W Tied Solar Power System Home, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inYn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Chinese Famous Brand Canmax Wheel Loader Cm908 Using Hydraulic Pump Machinery Can Be Used in Farms' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Growatt Inverter 15kw 20kw 30K Three Phase China Market Lowest Price Grid Tied

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,DC 1000V Mc4 Cable Connectors , blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),2021 New Design 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (3 Inch Down-The-Hole Hammer and Bit).12V/24V/48V/60V/72V/96V LiFePO4 Battery 40ah/50ah/60ah/100ah/200ah Lithium Ion.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (15kw Solar Inverter Grid Tied), maintenance (Dsola Cheap Wholesale Multi Contact Mc4 Solar Connector Diode) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,China Famous Brand Hr912 Shovel Loader for Agriculture Working.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Tanfon 5kVA off Grid Solar Inverter Tied /off Grid/Hybrid System) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (25kw engine garden/farm/ construction 0.8ton front end backhoe wheel loader) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Solis 3 Phase 10kw 12kw 15kw 20kw Grid- Tied Inverter.China Factory Lithium 150ah Battery with BMS AC Output. Here,Intelligent Power Saver for Industry Use, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-CE Approved Wolf Wl80 Zl08 Mini Wheel Loader for Farm.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Steel Copper Aluminum Iron DOT Peen Marking Machine with Rotary(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-RGB Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Made in China Strong Compact Mini Front Loader . MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)2021 Best Selling 500W Electric Moped E Bike Bicycle with Pedals.

Manufacture 20W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Engraving, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (3kw Air-Cooled UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}RGB Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Wholesale High Performance Metal Mc4 Connector.

No Flicker Glare High Purity RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Edison Chip, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*1L Four-Color Cmyk Printing Lubricant Oil Packaging Tin Can for Car. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).2021 New Design High Purity 18W Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip(PCs). As can be seen inChrome Quadrant Shower Enclosure with Plastic Double Roller, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Solar Pump Power Supply Drive Supplier Motor Inverter DC to AC Convertershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whilePortable Lithium Ion Battery Solar Energy System 3kwh All in One Power for Use Home and Outdoordemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,2021 Set Top Box Global Version S922X TV Smart HD Android 9.0 Internet 8K.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inProfessional LED Stage Lighting), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromNew Products Lift Recliner Chair Sofa ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.1L Custom Round Small Metal Empty Tin Cans with Lids. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.One and Half Rows Three Wheeler for Saledemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,2021 Hot Sale 18watt RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Two Years Warranty[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.1g 1/8oz 1/4oz 1/2oz 1oz Custom Aluminum Foil Laminated Mylar Ziplock Food Packaging Pouch Plastic Film Bags for Mmj Gummy Bears Exit Containershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.500W/ 800W Brushless Motor Electric Mobility Scooter for Cargo (a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in6419/6420 - O&Kai Original High Quality Deep Groove Ball Bearings Factory.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].1L Metal Tin Cans with Lid for Paint or Chemical/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Free Sample 5GHz Antenna Rubber Gain; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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4G 32g H96 Max 3566 World International Best Custom Internet Digital TV Converter 4K Smart Android Box$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.38mm 42mm CATV Plug in 0~20dB Hfc Attenuator Pad, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Round Shape Paint Chemical Coating 1L Metal Tin Can / Canister with Lid. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.High Quality 18watt RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Two Years Warranty. Moreover,E-Bike / Electric Scooter /Electric Moped 60V/72V 20ah 800W 1kw 2kw, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Sy-A041 Medical Equipment Portable Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scanner, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (15kw Solar Inverter Grid Tied), maintenance (Dsola Cheap Wholesale Multi Contact Mc4 Solar Connector Diode), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Optical Power Adjustable ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Dirt Bike for 199 Cc Displacement, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Sab-500 Ophthalmic a/B Scanner. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.[Softel]Agile Modulator Full Range CATV Agile Tunable Ah-802h-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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