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## Calacatta Black Artificial Quartz Stone for Kitchen Countertop and Table Top

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**GMP Standard Pharmaceutical Intermediates Raw Powder CAS 102518- 79 -6 Huperzine a with Best PriceCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult****Oxygen Barrier Transparent Vacuum Plastic Bag; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter.7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter.3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Mineral Reagents Coal Dressing Collector Ammonium Dibutyl Dithiophosphate(Smith and Mason, 1997).10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(Single 5"Two-Way Full-Range Loudspeaker Small Scale Indoor with Tx5c). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. Furthermore,1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase.2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inHigh Power Speaker Dual 10 " PRO/Professional Audio Line Array (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use' names:

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►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Heat Silicone Film Can Customized Various Specifications and High Resilience Non-Stick.).High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction), maintenance (Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power.2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult. Here,10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing.

1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale.

Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China(PCs). As can be seen inNew Pattern Design 17.5-25 20.5-25 26.5-25 off Road Tyre, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin,Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Factory Hot Sell High Quality Rimonabant Acomplia Fat Burning Steroidillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.PRO Audio Speaker Dual 10 " Line Arrayshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileAcrylic Film Quadrant Frosted Glass Shower Cubicle with Low Tray demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inShovel Stamping Die), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from2862 Easy Installation 5kw 6kw 8kw 10kw 12kw on Grid Solar System) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.CATV 860MHz One Way Amplifierdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Manufacturer Reusable Ziplock PE Pet Food Stand up Packaging Pouch Bag Flat Bottom Coffee Bean Three-Side Sealed Mylar Chocolateshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inReally Good Quality Scent Top Perfumes.

*Cost model for variable-Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Er08 Farm Mini Loader with Standard Bucket for Sale$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. Moreover,Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction), maintenance (Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage.*Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling.*Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W, Montreal. 319 pp. [5GHz 23dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna ]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [8mm Thickness 316ss IP68 RGB DC12V 18W External Control Mode LED Swimming Pool Light]

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Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Alloy Ldx 2101 Uns S32101 Stainless Steel Plate]

Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [High Quality Acid Dyes for Nylon Black Mr 194 CAS No. 61847-77-6 Textile]

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USBM. 1987.L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box,Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [China Price Custom Logo Insulated Vaccuum Coffee Mug Wholesale 20oz 30oz Stainless Steel Yetis Tumbler]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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