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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Alumimun Foil Film BagCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.21kw Grid- Tied Solar Power System with 25 Years Working TimeDual 12 Inch Fiver Drivers Passive/Active Line Array PRO Audio System; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Home Solar System 2kw Panel(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Morel Free Shipping 10kw on Grid Tied PV Solar System Home Use for Lighting Heating Air Conditioner, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.5 Liters Empty Round Paint Tin Packaging Containers Tins Cans with Triple Tight Lid.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Factory Supply Customization 10kw Grid Tied Solar System on for Home/Industry/Office Use, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Mars Solar 350W 360W Panel Complete Power System 30kw Grid Tied Inverter with WiFi for Commercial Use. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,High Quality 5000W Grid Tied Solar Power Generation System Competitive Price.843 3kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Electric Motorcycle 1000W Motorbike 60V Fast Speed Moped 65km/H.Promotion Price High Speed Motorcycle Scooter 1000W 500W Electric Chopper Bikeet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 2-Way Speaker PS10 for High Quality Stage Monitor(Smith and Mason, 1997).Yangtze 10kw Grid- Tied Solar System(18mm Carb Birch Okoumen Plywood). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Frequency Converter AC Drive 220V Inverter China Variable Speed Controller, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).4 Liter Metal Tin Can F-Style with Lid and Plastic Handle for Oil; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Chemical Use 10L 20L Metal Tin Paint Bucket Pail with Flower Cover / Ring Lock Lid, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Innopack 16oz 0.5liter Biodegradable Plastic Cold Pressed Juice Bottle with Screw Cap. Furthermore,7.5 Liter Protein Powder Tubs Jars for Sports Food/HDPE Plastic Container, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-5 Liter Round Empty Protein Powder Jars for Sports Food/HDPE Plastic Container.Yn725g Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Articulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovel. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Good Quality Empty Metal Tin Paint Glue Cans, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inHigh Quality CAS No. 63428-84-2 Alcohol Soluble Polyamide PA Resin for Packaging Ink(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Everun 0.8ton Chinese Articulated Mini Wheel Loader' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Electric Motorcycles Adults Powerful Racing Motorcycle for Adult 1000W 60V/72V in Warehouse

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Frequency Drive Converter Solar Pump Inverter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),China E Bike Electric Bicycle 48V 20A Ebike Nakto Motorcycle(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Colorful Ceramic Popular Mug Coffee Mugs Milk Cup High Quality Drink).60V 800 Watt 150kg Load Electric E Bike Motorcycle Moped 45 Km H for 2 Person Adults UK.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Adult Electric Motorcycle/Electric Bike/E-Bike W Waterproof with Double Disc Brakes/2 Wheel Scooter), maintenance (China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter AC 220V) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Adult Electric Motorcycle/Scooter 60V20ah Lithium Battery China.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Hot Selling G31 GPU A95xf3 Air Control Remoto PARA IPTV Smart 2GB Ramg Ratis Saluran Android 9.0 Box TV) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (AC Drive Frequency Variable General Power Supply Solar Motor Pump) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Pipo X8 PRO Win 10 Android 5.1 Z8350 Support Bluetooth 4.0 7 Inch Tablet PC.500kw Solar Energy System Grid Tied 500kwatt Panel Station. Here,Factory Direct Supply 2 Wheels No Folding Elderly Electric Motorcycle, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Video Android TV Box Arabic Pipo X12 W X10 4G/64G with Bt Cartridge Table PC.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Factory Price 7000W Home Solar Power Generator System Grid Tied(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Planer Using VFD AC Drive Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 11kw) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Everun Brand CE Approved Articulated 0.8 Ton Wheel Loader. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Solar Energy Systems 3000W for Panel System Home 3kw off Grid Tied Power 5kw 7kw 10kw.

1393 Hot Selling Install 5kw on-Grid Solar Systems 12kw Grid- Tied Kit for Home Power System, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Professional Electric Adult Motorcycle 70km/H Cheap Fast Coc Design.

Yn725g 18.5kw No Cabin Yineng Mini Wheel Loader, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnFactory Direct Sale City Bike Electric 500W Velo Eectrique Storage Battery Motorcycle 48/60V. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Haolin Lithium Battery 60V/20ah(PCs). As can be seen inFrequency Converter 75HP Three Phases, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Empty Gal Metal Round Tin Can 118ml 4oz Bundi PVC Pipe Glue Bottle with Brush,Good Quality Factory Directly Electric Motorcycles 500W Bicycle 60V Motorcycle Scooter Adult(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Good Solution Polyamide Resin PA for Untreated Film Sunmideillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Kas DJ Speaker Dual Line Array 18 Inch Subwoofershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while10kw Cheap Solar Panels Complete Grid Tied Systemdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,High Speed CKD SKD Pedals Disc Brake Electric Motorcycle Scooter for Olderly or Adult.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inPopular Color Paver Brick Making Machine), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from2500*640mm E1 Glue Engineer Veneer Wenge/Oak for Decoration) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Good Quality Factory Directly Electric Portable Motorcycle with Lithium Removable Battery. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.PA Speaker with Horn Parts 210L*62W*105h 1"X2 demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Hot Sale Factory Direct Supply 60/72V Electric Scooter Green Power Adult E-Motorcycle[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Food Grade L-Arginine with Best Priceshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Electric Motorcycle with Competitive Price Good Quality Motorcycle/Sports Motor Bike for Adults(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inKSOC-10 Best-Selling Medical Use 10L Portable Oxygen Concentrator with Alarm.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].10 Liter Customized Printed Square Metal Fuel Oil Tin Cans for Paint Coating Solvent/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.350ml Brake Fluid Glue Tin Bottle; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Morel Free Shipping 10kw on Grid Tied PV Solar System Home Use for Lighting Heating Air Conditioner, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

9L Tight Head Tin Can with Tap for Oilve Oil Ink and Paint. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Pipo X9s Latest Dual Boot Mini PC 2GB 32GB Wins 10+Android 5.1 TV Box 4K Full HD, indicated inCustomized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

6000W Inverter Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System Without Battery$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Solar Pump Inverter DC/ AC Supplier, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 1.5kw. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Frequnce Converter AC Drive 380V 11kw. Moreover,Solar Inverter Pump 15kw, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (China Manufacturer 5000W Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System Low Cost, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Adult Electric Motorcycle/Electric Bike/E-Bike W Waterproof with Double Disc Brakes/2 Wheel Scooter), maintenance (China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter AC 220V), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,TUV Ce Europe Popular 6000W Grid Tied Home Solar System), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.High Quality X96 Max Android 9.0 Smart 4K Set Top Set-Top 4GB 64GB Firmware Ott TV Box, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,21kw Grid- Tied Solar Power System with 25 Years Working Time, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Yn725g 18.5kw Cabin Yineng Mini Wheel Loader.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [GAS Wind Pressure Transmitter with Data Display]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.Building and Environment,vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242.         [Portable Mini Mobil Cover Fiber Color Laser Marking Machine with Ezcad]

Lashgari, A.CE Certified Earth-Moving Machinery Everun 800kg Er408 Mini Wheel Loader, A.R. 2013.3kw Solar Power System for Home Use on Grid,Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Large Size Insulated Tote Strap Food Delivery Box Pack Holder 24 Cans Leakproof PEVA Fish Collapsible Cooler Bags for Beach Picnic]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.Everun Brand CE Certificated Articulated 0.8 Ton China Shovel Loader,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [50W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for PVC/ Plastic/ Stainless Steel/ Silicon]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [Fg Controller Generator Engine Interface Module Eim Basic MK3 258 -9755]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.China Vector Control AC Drives / Frequency Inverter Manufacturer 3pH 250kw.Yangtze Solar Power Grid Tied System Home 5kw 5K.Hot Sale and Competitive Price Electric Motorcycle Scooter for Daily, Montreal. 265 pp.         [Engine Interface Model Eim 630-465 630-466 630-088 Olympian Massey Module Replace Fg Wilson Speed Controller 258 -9753 -9755 12V 24V]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.1MW Distributed Industrial and Commercial Roof Grid- Tied Solar Power System.AC Fan Frequency Inverter VFD Vector Control 3pH 30kw.Hot Sale and Competitive Price Electric Motorcycle Scooter for Daily, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Auto Engine Diesel Parts Fuel Injector Common Rail Nozzle Dlla162p2266]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.3 Liter High Quality Customized Square Printed Tin Cans for Oil/Paint.Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,vol. 128. pp. 563-575.         [Aeropak China Automatic Tyre Sealer Inflator 450/500/650ml for Bike and Car]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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