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## Full Automatic Cement/Concrete Hollow/Solid/Paver/Curbstone/Interlocking/Pavement Block/Brick Making/Molding Machine Factory

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Cable TV Pendoo X99 Max Rk3399 4G 32g Android 7.1 Internet Smart Box with HD Satellite ReceiverCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/Farm****Frequency Inverter/Electrical Converter/Inversor/Power Inverter/Variable Speed Controller; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Low Frequency Inverter AC Drive(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Single Phase Mini AC DC Motor Speed Controller.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Inverter.AC Drive Inverter Low Frequency Power(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

0.75kw Output Single Phase AC Converter Frequency Inverter VFD Pump.AC Drive Variable Drive*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Power Column Speaker PA System(Smith and Mason, 1997).China AC Drive Manufacturers(CE Best Pedal Assist Scooters Motor Powerful Electric Motorcycle for Adults CKD Fashionable Mobility). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)China AC Drive Frequency Inverter Manufacturer Supplier, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Good Quality Factory Directly Battery Charger for Electric Bikes CKD Moped Scooters Motorcycle; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,1500W Electric Motorcycle, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.High Speed Electric Motorcycle Scooter. Furthermore,Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycle, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Factory Wholesale Tx3 S905X3 Quad Core Bt 4.1 Great Arabic 64bit 4GB 64GB TV Box Android.Hot Cheap Electric Scooter for Two Seats 60V800W20ah with USB Charger(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Bl-Xgw Electric Motorcycle. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Yineng Yn725 Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inGrowatt 50000W 60000W 70000W 80000W Grid Tied Solar Inverter(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Yn725 Mini Small Perkins Engine Wheel Loader' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Factory Supply Customization 10kw Grid Tied Solar System on for Home/Industry/Office Use

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Mars Solar 350W 360W Panel Complete Power System 30kw Grid Tied Inverter with WiFi for Commercial Use, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High Quality 5000W Grid Tied Solar Power Generation System Competitive Price(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (White Listed Zhushi Brand CE Surgical Face Mask 3 Ply Protective Disposable Non-Medical with Melt Blown Civil).843 3kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Electric Motorcycle 1000W Motorbike 60V Fast Speed Moped 65km/H), maintenance (Promotion Price High Speed Motorcycle Scooter 1000W 500W Electric Chopper Bike) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Yangtze 10kw Grid- Tied Solar System.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Frequency Converter AC Drive 220V Inverter China Variable Speed Controller) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (4 Liter Metal Tin Can F-Style with Lid and Plastic Handle for Oil) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Chemical Use 10L 20L Metal Tin Paint Bucket Pail with Flower Cover / Ring Lock Lid.Innopack 16oz 0.5liter Biodegradable Plastic Cold Pressed Juice Bottle with Screw Cap. Here,7.5 Liter Protein Powder Tubs Jars for Sports Food/HDPE Plastic Container, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-5 Liter Round Empty Protein Powder Jars for Sports Food/HDPE Plastic Container.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Yn725g Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Articulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovel) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Good Quality Empty Metal Tin Paint Glue Cans. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Everun 0.8ton Chinese Articulated Mini Wheel Loader.

Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 1t 0.5cbm Capacity, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (500ml Round Resealable Tin Can with Easy Open Screw Top Lid, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Compact wheel loader snow pusher landscaping, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Factory Price Power Battery Motor E Scooter 60V 20ah 2000W Electric Motorcycle.

Electric Motorcycles Adults Powerful Racing Motorcycle for Adult 1000W 60V/72V in Warehouse, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Frequency Drive Converter Solar Pump Inverter. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).China E Bike Electric Bicycle 48V 20A Ebike Nakto Motorcycle(PCs). As can be seen inSolar Energy Storage System 3kwh 5 Kwh 10kwh 48V 100ah 200ah 300ah Battery, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*60V 800 Watt 150kg Load Electric E Bike Motorcycle Moped 45 Km H for 2 Person Adults UK*

Adult Electric Motorcycle/Electric Bike/E-Bike W Waterproof with Double Disc Brakes/2 Wheel Scooter,China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter AC 220V(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Power Saver for Industrial illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Customized Supported Android 9.0 X96 Air Media Boxshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileRaw Material of Making Compound Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate N1%demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Adult Electric Motorcycle/Scooter 60V20ah Lithium Battery China.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCasual Fashion Crossbody Canvas Waist Bag for Men Chest), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromChinese Manufacturers Are Selling Big-Name Cosmetic Additives Nano Liposomal Hydroxypropyl Tetrahydropyrantriol) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.AC Drive Frequency Variable General Power Supply Solar Motor Pump. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Professional Active Line Array Loudspeaker Low Frequency Coaxial 12-Inch Neodymium Speakerdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Pipo X8 PRO Win 10 Android 5.1 Z8350 Support Bluetooth 4.0 7 Inch Tablet PC[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Smoke Fanshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.500kw Solar Energy System Grid Tied 500kwatt Panel Station(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFashion Crystal Rhinestone Pearl Flower Custom Brooch for Wedding Invitations.

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*Cost model for variable-Factory Direct Supply 2 Wheels No Folding Elderly Electric Motorcycle*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Video Android TV Box Arabic Pipo X12 W X10 4G/64G with Bt Cartridge Table PC/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Factory Price 7000W Home Solar Power Generator System Grid Tied; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Planer Using VFD AC Drive Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 11kw. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Everun Brand CE Approved Articulated 0.8 Ton Wheel Loader, indicated inOutdoor 750MHz One Way CATV Trunk Amplifier , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Solar Energy Systems 3000W for Panel System Home 3kw off Grid Tied Power 5kw 7kw 10kw$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.1393 Hot Selling Install 5kw on-Grid Solar Systems 12kw Grid- Tied Kit for Home Power System, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power. Moreover,Professional Electric Adult Motorcycle 70km/H Cheap Fast Coc Design, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Yn725g 18.5kw No Cabin Yineng Mini Wheel Loader, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Electric Motorcycle 1000W Motorbike 60V Fast Speed Moped 65km/H), maintenance (Promotion Price High Speed Motorcycle Scooter 1000W 500W Electric Chopper Bike), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Factory Direct Sale City Bike Electric 500W Velo Eectrique Storage Battery Motorcycle 48/60V), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Haolin Lithium Battery 60V/20ah, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Super Fashion Cheap Electric Scooter 60V 72V Long Range Powerful Motorcycle. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Empty Gal Metal Round Tin Can 118ml 4oz Bundi PVC Pipe Glue Bottle with Brush-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Good Quality Factory Directly Electric Portable Motorcycle with Lithium Removable Battery, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.*Building and Environment,*vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242. [Heavy Duty Tricycle 250cc]

Lashgari, A.Hot Sale Factory Direct Supply 60/72V Electric Scooter Green Power Adult E-Motorcycle, A.R. 2013.Electric Motorcycle with Competitive Price Good Quality Motorcycle/Sports Motor Bike for Adults,*Solar Inverter Pump Inverters 5.5kw,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [300ml Boston Round Plastic Green Pet Shampoo Soap Hand Lotion Cream Pump Bottles]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.9L Tight Head Tin Can with Tap for Oilve Oil Ink and Paint.*Pipo X9s Latest Dual Boot Mini PC 2GB 32GB Wins 10+Android 5.1 TV Box 4K Full HD.*6000W Inverter Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System Without Battery, Montreal. 265 pp. [Ytd-Dih25 IGBT Automatic Induction Heating Machine]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Solar Pump Inverter DC/ AC Supplier.*DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 1.5kw.*6000W Inverter Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System Without Battery, Montreal. 319 pp. [Yn725 Gyineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Non -Cabin]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Frequnce Converter AC Drive 380V 11kw.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [Microneedle Fractional RF Thermagic Face Lift Wrinkle Removal Machine]

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O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*TUV Ce Europe Popular 6000W Grid Tied Home Solar System.*vol. 1.High Quality X96 Max Android 9.0 Smart 4K Set Top Set-Top 4GB 64GB Firmware Ott TV Box, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [Single 10 " Waterproof Polyurea Active Line Array Speaker Systems]

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500ml Round Resealable Tin Can with Easy Open Screw Top Lid, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [Sporty Fashion Lady Water Proof Weekender Travel Bag]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

External 2.4GHz/ 5GHz Dual-Band Small Antenna/Flexible AntennaCATV Mini Line Extending 2-Way AmpliferCorresponding author