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## 375kVA/300kw Soundproof Power Generator Set Diesel Engine Genset with Ce

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160s325n507Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Nh4 2so4 Chemical Formula for Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer****WiFi Probe Type 2 in 1 Double Head Wireless Mini Color Doppler Ultrasound; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.280mm Magnet(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Bocinas Prosound 18 Pulgadas PRO Speaker Ruidoso Audio Subwoofer Parlente Hot Sale, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Professional Audio PA Subwoofer Component Speakers Bocinas.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

L18 /86130 100%Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1000W RMS Subwoofer, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Additive PE Green Color Masterbatches Manufacturer. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,L18 /86131 Falante Professional 18inch Subwoofer 700W New Product China Supplier Hot Sale.L18 /86138-Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1500W RMS Neodymium Subwoofer(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

L18 / 6620- 18 Polegadas PRO Audio Subwoofer Alto Falante 650W.OEM Custom Square Rectangle Round Rubber Cover*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Gurjan Veneer Keruing(Smith and Mason, 1997).N21% White Granular Ammonium Sulphate(Industry Grade Ammonium Polyphosphate). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Vegetable and Fruit Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate Nitrogen 21%, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Agriculture Fertilizer N 21% Ammonium Sulfate; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,21% Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade Crystalline, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Agriculture Fertilizer Nitrogen 21% Ammonium Sulfate China Factory. Furthermore,Power Steel Grade Nitrogen 20.5% Industrial Ammonium Sulphate Chemical Fertilizer, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-White Extrusion Granular Ammonium Sulphate China Factory.Granular Grade Ammonium Sulphate N20.5% Nitrogen Fertilizer(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Nitrogen Fertilizer Color Granular Ammonium Sulphate 20.5+24s. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (China Suppliers Alone Type Wraped Beam Disc Machenism Padlock, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in25kw Electromagnetic Induction Heater for Tools Welding(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Dust Proof Steel Shackle Padlocks with Master Key' names:

►Padlock-G38PDP: based on 36-foot,Breaker Lock,Padlock,Alone Type Wraped Beam Leaves Iron Padlock , and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Fuso Truck & Bus Turbo Td04 49377-03041 Me201258 for 4m40 Engine Mitsubishi Pajero

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Gt1544s 454083-0001 1002829 Garrett Engine Turbo for Vw Passat, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Engine Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz Om906 La K27.2 Om366/Om642/Om362/Om441/Om442/Om447/Om457(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Yishan 180HP forestry bulldozer T180F with scarifier).Gt1544sm Tdi Engine Bnm 045253019d 733783-5008s 733783-5007s Turbo.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Universal Turbo T3t4 T04e T3.63 Ar + 76mm 3" Intercooler Pipe Piping Kit), maintenance (Truck Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz/Chrysler/Dodge Om647 Gt2256 6470900280 736088-0003) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,FPM FKM Viton EPDM SBR Cr Silicone NBR Rubber Parts.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Gt1541V 704765-0003/708450-0018 Turbine Wheel Shaft for 700960-0011) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Gt1544sm 733783-5007s Turbo for Volkswagen Fox 1.4L Tdi Engine Bnm) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Cosmetic Grade 99% Purity All Trans Retinoic Acid 302- 79 -4 Tretinoin/Vitamin a.Customized Rubber Spacer Black Silicone Bushing. Here,Gym Rubber Flooring Floor Mat Roll, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Ihi Turbocharger 2001-04 Peugeot.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Gt1749V (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-2004-10 for Volkswagen) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Borg Warner BV45 Turbo 5303-988-0337 Core Chra for Nissan. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)T250-04 452055-5004s Turbocharger for Gemini III Engine.

Gtb1749vk Turbo Cartridge 798128-0004 for 2011- Peugeot Boxer, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Gt3776D 466819-5004s 1823560c92 Turbo for Ford F650 Navistar, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Gt1749vk 798015-0002 A6710900380 Turbo for Ssang-Yong Korando C200 2.0 D20dtf Engine, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Gt1544V 740611-5002s 28201-2A400 Turbo for Hyundai Verna.

Aftermarket BV45 53039880337 Turbocharger for 2010-12 Nissan Pathfinder Navara Engine, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Factory Supply Glycyl-L-Tyrosine. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Dl-Isoleucine Powder CAS 443- 79 -8(PCs). As can be seen inChina Exwork Price Emla Cream Raw Materials Lidocaine Prilocaine Local Anesthetic Powder CAS: 1786-81-8, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Glycyl- L-Tyrosine; 658- 79 -7*

L-Pyroglutamic Acid,Dl-Isoleucine Powder CAS Number 443- 79 -8(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Food Packaging Bagillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Waterproof Loudspeaker Wall Mounter 15inch Mq-15cpshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileWhole Sale Hammerhead 150cc Go Kart with Partsdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,98% Uvarigranol B\C\D\E Standard Reference Materials Plant Extracts.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSmall Single Sink Hotel Modern White Bathroom Hanging Vanity), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromMotorcycle Spare Parts High Quality Flasher 6V 12V Gy6 -125 Tvs Star Bajaj Bm150) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.High Purity 99.0%Min. Ademetionine Disulfate Tosylate . The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Portable Laptop Digital Automatic Ultrasound Bone Densitometerdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Centella Asiatica Extract 99% Asiaticoside 16830-15-2[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Launch Thinkcar Thinkdiag Full System OBD2 Diagnostic Tool Powerful Than Easydiag with 3 Free Softwareshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Crovell Supply Raw Material CAS 104-29-0 Chlorphenesin for Cosmetic(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFactory Coated Glass Bottle Parfum with Wholesale Branded Perfume ABS Cap.

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*Cost model for variable-Food Additive L-Threonic Acid Magnesium Salt/Magnesium L-Threonate CAS No.: 778571-57-6*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Polyethylene Green Color Masterbatch/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Pipe Bevelling Machine ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Bocinas Prosound 18 Pulgadas PRO Speaker Ruidoso Audio Subwoofer Parlente Hot Sale, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

ISO Certificated Company Supply Skin Whitening Retinoic Acid Powder. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Green Plastic Masterbatch Blowing Film Grade, indicated inTitan OEM New Type Qingzhou Loadefr Factory RC Avant Mini Wheel Loaders with Ce, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Green Color HDPE Masterbatch$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Blue Masterbatch for Film, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Yellow Color Plastic Masterbatch. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Yellow HDPE Masterbatch. Moreover,Universal LPG Gas Completed ECU Conversion Kit, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Act Best Seller CNG LPG Gas Car Emulator, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Universal Turbo T3t4 T04e T3.63 Ar + 76mm 3" Intercooler Pipe Piping Kit), maintenance (Truck Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz/Chrysler/Dodge Om647 Gt2256 6470900280 736088-0003), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,CNG/LPG Rail Injector Type Gas 4 Cylinders), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Act MP 48 ECU Switch/Act 2568d Switch, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Fuel Gas Cylinder ECU 2568d Map Sensors. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Motorcycle Act 2568d 6cyl 8cyl ECU Conversion Kit-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Auto Vehicle Gas Conversion Kit CNG Seqential Injection Kits.*Electric Pipe End Bevelling Machine,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [1L Empty Round Brake Fluid Can Boxes]

Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.*International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,*vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431. [China Polycrystalline Diamond PCD for Wire Drawing Die]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc. [Customized Metal Tea Canister Food Packaging Box Round Can Tin]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement,*vol. 20. pp. 141-151. [Yn725 Mini Small Perkins Engine Wheel Loader]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Nh4 2so4 Chemical Formula for Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-T-Electric Pipe Bevelling Machine .*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [10W 4" Inchs LED Dimmable Downlight for Room]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Pneumatic Pipe Beveling Machine High Performence, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.*Building and Environment,*vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242. [Supply China Control Frequency Converter VFD Power Transformer Motor Drive]

Lashgari, A.Act CNG LPG Fuel System 2568cyl ECU Kits, A.R. 2013.Factory Directly Sell Good Performance Virgin Transparent PA12 Granules/Pellets /Polyamide 12 Resin for Oil Cup,*Plastic Green Color Masterbatch,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Luxury Precious Stone Backlit Purple Fluorite Slab]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.*4 Cyl CNG Auto Gas LPG Conversion Kit / Sequential Injection System,*vol. 115. pp. 789-797. [Gy6 /Jog Motorcycle Spare Parts Regulator/Rectifier]

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Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.3cyl 4 Cyl 6cyl 8cyl LPG/CNG Injector Rail, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp. [3cm Thick Veined Quartz Stone Slabs for Kitchen Island Top]

Mular, A.L. 1982.L Auto Gas LPG Conversion Kit / Car 4 Cyl Sequential Injection System.*High Quality Diesel Engine Parts 4 Cyl Pump Rotor Head 096400-0371.*Diesel Engine Parts Injection System Nozzle Dnopd619, Montreal. 265 pp. [Lashes 3D Wholesale Vendor Full Strip False Eyelashes 20mm]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Supply API 99%Min Dalbavancin CAS 171500- 79 -1 Raw Material Powder.*Diesel Engine Parts Fuel System Nozzle Dlla145pn574.*Diesel Engine Parts Injection System Nozzle Dnopd619, Montreal. 319 pp. [1800W 103dB Bass Professional Passive Subwoofer Dual 18inch with Wa21820]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Master Batch Organic Colors.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [25kw engine garden/farm/ construction 0.8ton front end backhoe wheel loader]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Orange Color Masterbatch.Plastic Purple Color Masterbatch, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Dsola ODM/OEM Design High Efficient Mc4 Connector 3 in 1]

O'hara, T.A. 1980. Quick guide to the evaluation of ore bodies,*CIM Bulletin,*February. pp. 87-89. [Pre-Shipment Quality Inspection]

O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*Plastic Grey Color Masterbatch.*vol. 1.Free Sample Color Masterbatch ABS PE Non Toxic for Injection Molding, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [1167 Single Phase 3 110V/220V/380vgrid- Tied Inverter for Residential or Commercial Application 3kw-80kw]

Pascoe, R.D. 1992. Capital and operating costs of minerals engineering plants:Cosmetic Grade Liquid Form 70% CAS 79 -14-1 Glycolic Acid.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 5, no. 8. pp. 883-893. [New Brand Diesel Engine with Four Stroke Multy-Cylinder Used for Generator Set]

Prasad, L. 1969.Health Raw Material Dibasic Sodium Phosphate CAS No.: 7558- 79 -4 with High Quality.Cosmetic Raw Material 99% Retinoic Acid 302- 79 -4, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal. pp. 3-15. [Jwell-Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Clothing Packing with High Efficient]

Gt3776D 466819-5004s 1823560c92 Turbo for Ford F650 Navistar, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-ISO and SGS Factory Provide L-Arginine Nitrate 749- 79 -33.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Morel Free Shipping 10kw on Grid Tied PV Solar System Home Use for Lighting Heating Air Conditioner]

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Gt3776D 466819-5004s 1823560c92 Turbo for Ford F650 Navistar, A.R., Khalesi, M.R., and Khosfarman, M. 2014. A parametric cost model for mineral grinding mills.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 55. pp. 96-102. [Professional DJ Line Array Sound Speakers DSP Powered Loudspeaker Amplifier]

Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [Factory Price Ammonium Sulfate for Crystal Compound Fertilizer]

Stebbins, S.A. 1987. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines.*Information Circular*9170, 94. US Bureau of Mines. [Supprot OEM Software Android 9.1 Rk3228 2GB and 16GB Wholesale TV Boxes]

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USBM. 1987.High Quality Gentisic Acid CAS No.: 490- 79 -9 with Fast Delivery,Factory Provide Top Quality L-Carnitine Fumarate 99% 90471- 79 -7-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Sweetheart Beading Bridal Dress Plus Size Ivory Organza Wedding]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Three-Way Large Touring Performance Line Array System PA Speaker150cc MotorcycleCorresponding author