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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Shrink Wrapping Machine for Water Packing Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin****ISY SDC TCM ID Mounted Pipe Beveling Machine; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,957 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.China E-Bike Manufacturer Dropship Electro Motorcycle Electric Beach Cruiser Bicycle Chopper for Girls.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Zl08 0.8t Hot Sale Small Yard Loader Mini Tractor Front End, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Wl80 Mini Loader with Yanmar Engine. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Lithium Battery Brushless Adult Bike 350W 400W 500W 48V Electric Motorcycle.Solar Energy System 10kw 15kw Grid Tied Hybrid PV(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.2385 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 2.4- 5GHz MIMO Omni Antenna with 11dBi(Smith and Mason, 1997).Red Oak Veneered MDF for Interior Design and Renovations(Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Zl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Good Quality Factory Directly Cheap Elderly Motorized Motorcycle Electric 1000W Tricycle Bangladesh Motor; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Everun Brand Mini Front End Loader 0.8 Ton Wheel, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard. Furthermore,Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.962 Complete Solar System 40kw on Grid Home with High Quality. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (off Grid 20kw Solar System 20 Kw Panel Kit, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inLow Price Malonic Acid / Propanedioic CAS 141-82-2(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Cheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Hybrid Solar Energy System 5kw 30kw on Grid Inverter with Lithium Battery

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,955 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),0.18mm Zebra Wooden Veneer(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Men's Half Zip Neck Sweatshirt Mens Hoodie Fleece Classic Sweatshirts).Europe Popular 5kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System with Ce.

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (High Grade Block Board for Furniture Produce), maintenance (954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,952 Alicosolar 30kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (High Quality B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Engineered Teak Poplar Birch Veneer) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Dah Solar 100kw System Price on Grid Tied Inverter for Commercial Use.China Factory Pricing Empty Round Food Grade Nut Tin Cans. Here,High Performance 6kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Oil Treatment Packaging Tin Container Can.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can.

CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult.

3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint(PCs). As can be seen inCold/Hot Rolled Uns S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet and Plate Price, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Cheap 500W Professional Audio Speakers Dual 15 Inch Speaker

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W*

Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use,350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale(CSFM) is presented here as an example.500W Air-Cooled Wide Band UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTVillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 150sn902shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileNeodymium Double 10 Inch DSP Active Professional Powered Line Array Speakerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inChocolate Coating Machine Enrobing Line Cooling Tunnel), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHigh Quality 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*0.8t 800kg Small Loader*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.X96 Max Amlogic S905X2 Android8.1 2GB RAM 16GB ROM or 4GB 32GB 64GB 4K Android TV Boxdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.White Powder Vitamin a for Food and Feed Gradeshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFluffy Teddy Bear Present for Children's Day.

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*Cost model for variable-Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,957 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin, indicated inDeltamethrin 2.5% EC Pesticide & Insecticides, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter. Moreover,7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (High Grade Block Board for Furniture Produce), maintenance (954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Industrial Energy Saving Device Made in ChinaArc Shaped Column Speaker for Restaurant and Shopping MallCorresponding author