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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



2021 New Compact 10 " Active Line Array Speaker Sound SystemCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Hot Sale Popular Model 60V 800W Electric Motorcycle for India MarketTeak Wood Veneer Woven Design for Plywood Door; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Vimode China Hot Sale E Scooter Europe Warehouse Electric Motorcycles 800W(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,New Design 800W 1000W Electric Scooter Motorcycle for Riding, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.5.8GHz 30dBi Single-Pol Die Cast Grid Antenna.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Mimo Antenna 5150MHz~5850MHz WiFi Panel, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,5GHz 20dBi Panel WiFi Antenna. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Fast Ship 800W 1000W 1200W 60V 72V 20ah Battery Electric Motorcycle From China.Hot Sale 2.4/ 5GHz 9dBi Rubber WiFi Antenna(Khalesiet al.,2015).

5GHz 12dBi Dual Polarity MIMO Omni Antenna.Electric Motorcycle Fashion Design 800W with Removable Batteryet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Ce Approved Medical Portable Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Machine (Smith and Mason, 1997).5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarization Panel WLAN Antenna(TUV Certificate Gried Tied on Grid 30kw Solar Power System). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Guangzhou Manufacturer Empty Anti Bacterial Diesel Additive Can for Fuel Cleaner, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Hot Sale Special Cooking Coconut Oil Tin Can Milk Tank Beverage Cans; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Buy Food Grade Metal Material Empty Cans for 0.5-2.5L, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Hot Sale 301 401 Easy Opening Seal Can Round Empty Tin with Metal Caps. Furthermore,1 Gallon Metal Can Clear Car Paint Square Empty Engine Oil Tin Cans Latas, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-10X5.5'' Best Light 110mm off Road Steel ATV Wheel Rim.Central Hole 68mm 10X5.5'' Mild Steel ATV Wheel Rim(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Alloy Wheels . However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Silver Truck Wheel Rims Steel 17.5 Inch, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in99% Purity Local Cinchocaine Powder Dibucaine CAS 85- 79 -0 Price(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;15-20 Inch Quality Auto Alloy Wheels 4*4 Wheel for Trailer' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Retro Electric Motorcycle Scooter

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Carb Approved Birch Plywood, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Low Power Elevator Inverter 12kw with Controller(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Cee/IEC 16A 3p Blue Industrial Panel Mounted Socket).High Quality 18mm Carb Birch Okoumen Plywood.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (1.5kw 220V Frequency Converter Single Phase 380 3), maintenance (Carb Approved Birch Plywood) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Carb E0 Cabinet Grade 18mm Plywood in High Quality.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (1.5kw 220V Frequency Inverter Brands AC Drive for Electric Motor) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (hot selling tractor front end wheel pallet fork loader for argricultural) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Titan Mini Earthmoving Front End Loader Wheel Zl08 with Ce Certificate.Carb Bleach White Poplar Plywood LVL 12mm 18mm. Here,Warm White IP68 Resin Filled Wall Mounted 18watt LED Swimming Pool Light, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Wolf Loader Wl80 Zl08 Radlader Mini Wheel.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.2021 New Design Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-High Quality Carb Certified Birch Faced Furniture Plywood) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,UV Birch Plywood with Poplar Core Carb E0 Glue From Factory. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)17 Inch 18 Aftermarket New Design Aluminum Car Alloy Rim.

China Wolf Wl80 Articulated Mini Loader, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Digital ATSC Receiver Internet TV Set Top Box, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Vimode Buy 2021 Newest 48V Electric Motorcycles Made in China 800W, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,High Quality Aluminum Alloy Wheels Rims.

Truck Rim Steel Polished 17.5 Inch Wheel, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnSunpal 150kw Solar Grid Tied System Low Price. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).5GHz 19dBi Enclosure WLAN Antenna(PCs). As can be seen in12volt Input 18watt IP68 Waterproof Underwater Application Swimming Pool LED Lights, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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VFD Air Compressor Asynchronous Variable Frequency Drive,Tubeless Steel Wheel (CSFM) is presented here as an example.Single 10 Inch Top Line Array Passive Audio Speaker PA System Suited to 500-1500 Peopleillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Plastic PE PP HDPE PPR Pipe Making Machine Extrusion Production Lineshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileWarehouse Transporting Equipment Hydraulic Nylon Wheel Hand Manual Pallet Truckdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Home Application on Grid Tied Solar Power System 3kw.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inOutdoor Holiday Christmas Snow Flurry Snowflake Light Projector Yard Decorate), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromCrovell Supply Raw Material CAS 104-29-0 Chlorphenesin for Cosmetic) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Light Luxury Ins Style Super Soft Latex Fabric Sofa Nordic Small Family Living Room Double Three People Downdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,5GHz Antenna High Gain 32dBi[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Factory 18L Wholesale Large Square Aluminium Tin Can with Screw Top Lidshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.5GHz Dual Polarization Enclosure WLAN Antenna(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inLED Flexible Neon with CE&RoHS Approval.

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Cost model for variable-32dBi 5GHz WLAN Antenna

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Brown Black Opaque Chemical Industrial Container 100ml Flip Top Cap Bottle/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.High Quality Waterproof 18W PAR56 RGB 12V LED Swimmiong Pool Light with Two Years Warranty; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,New Design 800W 1000W Electric Scooter Motorcycle for Riding, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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No Flicker Glare Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.High Quality Underwater Swimming Pool Light Decoration LED Lamp, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)17 Inch Machined Aftermarket Alloy Wheel . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.2021 New Design Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty. Moreover,New Electric Beatiful on Road 800W Scooter E-Motorcycle, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (5GHz 15dBi Dual Polarization Enclosure WiFi Antenna, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (1.5kw 220V Frequency Converter Single Phase 380 3), maintenance (Carb Approved Birch Plywood), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Modern City Leisure Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Lithium Battery ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.White Truck Wheel 17.5X6.00 Steel Rims, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,7.5kw MPPT with High Efficiency Solar Water Pump Controller. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Carb P2 AA/Bb Grade Birch/Okoume/Bintangor/Poplar Plywood-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Gospell DVB-C SD TV Box MPEG-2/MPEG-4/H. 264 Video Decoding1389 Hot Selling Install 5kw on-Grid Solar Systems 12kw Grid- Tied Kit for Home Power SystemCorresponding author

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