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## Fully Automatic Qt4-23A Concrete Hollow Solid Paving Block Machine

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Embossed PC Solid Sheet Extruder Machine Making Extrusion LineCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz****Grid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supply; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer.3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil(Smith and Mason, 1997).Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China(Loader). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady. Furthermore,Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults.1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inLine Array System with Parts for PRO Audio Speaker (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Modern 2021 Round Flexible LED Loop Chandelier).Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied), maintenance (60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price.Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive. Here,Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Frequency Converter for Water Pump.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans.

AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W.

850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W(PCs). As can be seen inCoaxial Loudspeaker TD12, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}2021 Best Selling 500W Electric Moped E Bike Bicycle with Pedals

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Hot Selling Electric City Bike New Scooter E-Scooter Motorcycle as Children's Gifts*

Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike,0.8 Ton Mini/Small Tractor Front End Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Forklift(CSFM) is presented here as an example.600W- 800W 48V/60V Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooterillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.2021 Android TV Box H96 WiFi Set Internetshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileVera12 New Design 800watts 12" Audio System Line Arraydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in450ml Custom High Quality Stainless Steel Vacuum Insulated Wine Tumbler with Handle), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromCe Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.China Supplier EEC and EPA Approved 1500cc Quadskidemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.BMK White Powder Europe Free Shipping Pmk Glycidate CAS: 13605-48-6shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inShipping Service From Shenzhen to Macau.

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*Cost model for variable-L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil, indicated in1L High End Glass Vodka Wine Bottle with Matte Black Finish, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale. Moreover,Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied), maintenance (60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Pinergy 9kw on- Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home or Industrial Roof), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE , and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725.*Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IP]

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INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc. [Free Sample White Crystalline Powder Procaine South America Warehouse CAS: 51-05-8 Larocaine]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement,*vol. 20. pp. 141-151. [IP68 8W-42W Surface Mounted Multi-Color LED Underwater Swimming Light]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Everun Brand New Generation CE Approved Er408 0.8ton Mini Front End Wheel Loader.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725g, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.*Building and Environment,*vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242. [PA12 Transparent Polyamide with Anti-UV Granules]

Lashgari, A.0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/Farm, A.R. 2013.Low Frequency Inverter AC Drive,*Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Skycron® Disperse Blue 60/S-GL Dye Printing Fabric]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw.*Inverter.*AC Drive Inverter Low Frequency Power, Montreal. 265 pp. [Buy Food Grade Metal Material Empty Cans for 0.5-2.5L]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.0.75kw Output Single Phase AC Converter Frequency Inverter VFD Pump.*AC Drive Variable Drive.*AC Drive Inverter Low Frequency Power, Montreal. 319 pp. [Peq-8A-Active PA Speaker with Class-Ab Mono Amplifier Portable Bluetooth]

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Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.China AC Drive Frequency Inverter Manufacturer Supplier.Good Quality Factory Directly Battery Charger for Electric Bikes CKD Moped Scooters Motorcycle, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [High Speed Full Size Adult 800W Z1000 Electric Motorcycle]

O'hara, T.A. 1980. Quick guide to the evaluation of ore bodies,*CIM Bulletin,*February. pp. 87-89. [Precision Mini Engingeers Hobby Metal Bench Lathe]

O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*1500W Electric Motorcycle.*vol. 1.High Speed Electric Motorcycle Scooter, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [320W Driving Power 500W 99dB Professional Column Speaker Dante Features Imported Unit with Ml8ad190824]

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Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Bl-Xgw Electric Motorcycle.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Quarter Cut Ebano Makassar Chapa De Madera PARA Cocina Puerta]

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USBM. 1987.Yineng Yn725 Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin,Yn725 Mini Small Perkins Engine Wheel Loader-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Custom Baby Plush Toy Animals Crocodile Stuffed Animal]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Growatt 50000W 60000W 70000W 80000W Grid Tied Solar InverterSp-1000ap Ophthalmic a Scan and PachymeterCorresponding author