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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**10 " PRO Audio Line Array Speaker SystemCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Nitrogen 21% Crystal Shape Agriculture Fertilizer****off Grid Tied Solar Inverter 10kw 15kw 20kw 30kw 50kw 100kw 200kw 500kw 3phase; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Capro Grade Crystal (SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Powder Compound Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate with Nitrogen 21%, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Powder Caprolactam Grade Chemical Fertilizer with Nitrogen 21%.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

N21% Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphate, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,White Color Crystal Nitrogen N21% Ammonium Sulfate. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,China Best Price Agriculture Fertilizer with Nitrogen 21%.Factory Price Agricultrue Fertilizer with Caprolactam Grade(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

White Powder.Crystal Nitrogen 21% Agricultural Fertilizer*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array Speaker(Smith and Mason, 1997).Steel Grade Nitrogen 20.5% Ammonium Sulphate(Beautiful Design T95 RAM 4GB ROM 32GB Allwinner H616 Universal 4K TV Android 10.0 Set Top Box). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Nitrogen Fertilizer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Cheap Price Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Steel Grade; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Nitrogen Fertilizer Caprolactam Grade Granular CAS No. 7783-20-2 N21% Ammonium Sulphate, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Cheap Price Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Blue Star 21%. Furthermore,Urea Fertilizer/ Ammonium Sulfate with Steel Grade, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Agriculture Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam 25kg Package.High Quality Ammonium Dibutyl Dithiophosphate 95%(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.L18 /8693 Falante Professional 18inch Subwoofer 1200W New Product China Supplier. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (N21% Nitrogen Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Factory Price, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inSurface Mounted Fully Resin Filled RGB LED Piscine Pool Light(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Plants Ammonium Sulphate Granular 20.5%Min' names:

►Chemical Factory Sale Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer Granular: based on 36-foot,Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulfate Soa Fertilizer Sulphate,20.5% Nitrogen Steel Grade Ammonium Sulphate in Agriculture,Nitrogen Fertilizer Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphate, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Nitrogen Fertilizer Steel Grade as From China Factory

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate 21%Min, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),White Crystal Steel Grade Ammonium Sulphate with N20.5%(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Colorful Pebbles Print MIDI Dress).Floating Agent Ammonium Dibutyl Dithiophosphate Supplier.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Mineral Processing Reagents Collector Ammonium Dibutyl Dithiophosphate), maintenance (Nitrogen Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate for Agriculture) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,China Suppllier Ammonium Sulphate 21% Nitrogen Fertilizer.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Granular Ammonium Sulphate) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Fertilizer N21%) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.China Supplier Ammonium Sulphate Compound Fertilizer.Crystal Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate for Coumpound. Here,Raw Material of Making Compound Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate N1%, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Vegetable and Fruit Fertilizer Crystal Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphate.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Crystal Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphate Vegetables and Fruits Fertilizer(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Hipower Top 10 Speakers Professional Audio PA Loudspeaker 8ohm) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Professional Audio PA Subwoofer Component Speakers. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)650W-18 Inch Subwoofer Speaker Manufacture China Factory Directly.

Nh4 2so4 Chemical Formula for Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (280mm Magnet, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Bocinas Prosound 18 Pulgadas PRO Speaker Ruidoso Audio Subwoofer Parlente Hot Sale, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Professional Audio PA Subwoofer Component Speakers Bocinas.

L18 /86130 100%Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1000W RMS Subwoofer, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Additive PE Green Color Masterbatches Manufacturer. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).L18 /86131 Falante Professional 18inch Subwoofer 700W New Product China Supplier Hot Sale(PCs). As can be seen inPA Power DJ Audio Speaker, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*L18 /86138-Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1500W RMS Neodymium Subwoofer*

L18 / 6620- 18 Polegadas PRO Audio Subwoofer Alto Falante 650W,OEM Custom Square Rectangle Round Rubber Cover(CSFM) is presented here as an example.150CC Go Kart illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.18" Fane Style Aluminum Speaker Frameshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileDisodium Hydrogen Phosphate demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,N21% White Granular Ammonium Sulphate.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inScrew Cap 500ml Top Quality Glass Bottles for Vodka), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromLp Electric Guitar on-on-on Control Switch) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Vegetable and Fruit Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate Nitrogen 21%*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Agriculture Fertilizer N 21% Ammonium Sulfate. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.96dB 250W AES Professional Full Range Two-Way Speaker Sinlge 10inch KTV Disco Occasion System with Ks10190902demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,21% Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade Crystalline[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.CAS16830-15-2 Gotu Kola Extract Centella Asiatica Powder Cosmetic Ingredient Asiaticosideshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Agriculture Fertilizer Nitrogen 21% Ammonium Sulfate China Factory(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHigh Quality Stoneware Ceramic Coffee Mug.

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*Cost model for variable-Power Steel Grade Nitrogen 20.5% Industrial Ammonium Sulphate Chemical Fertilizer*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].White Extrusion Granular Ammonium Sulphate China Factory/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Granular Grade Ammonium Sulphate N20.5% Nitrogen Fertilizer; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Powder Compound Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate with Nitrogen 21%, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Nitrogen Fertilizer Color Granular Ammonium Sulphate 20.5+24s. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.China Suppliers Alone Type Wraped Beam Disc Machenism Padlock, indicated inSolar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Dust Proof Steel Shackle Padlocks with Master Key$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Padlock-G38PDP, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Breaker Lock. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Padlock. Moreover,Alone Type Wraped Beam Leaves Iron Padlock , and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Fuso Truck & Bus Turbo Td04 49377-03041 Me201258 for 4m40 Engine Mitsubishi Pajero, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Mineral Processing Reagents Collector Ammonium Dibutyl Dithiophosphate), maintenance (Nitrogen Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate for Agriculture), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Gt1544s 454083-0001 1002829 Garrett Engine Turbo for Vw Passat), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Engine Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz Om906 La K27.2 Om366/Om642/Om362/Om441/Om442/Om447/Om457, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Gt1544sm Tdi Engine Bnm 045253019d 733783-5008s 733783-5007s Turbo. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Universal Turbo T3t4 T04e T3.63 Ar + 76mm 3" Intercooler Pipe Piping Kit-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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