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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Cold/Hot Rolled Uns S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet and Plate PriceCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Red Oak Veneered MDF for Interior Design and RenovationsCheap 500W Professional Audio Speakers Dual 15 Inch Speaker ; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Zl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Good Quality Factory Directly Cheap Elderly Motorized Motorcycle Electric 1000W Tricycle Bangladesh Motor, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Everun Brand Mini Front End Loader 0.8 Ton Wheel.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah(Khalesiet al.,2015).

962 Complete Solar System 40kw on Grid Home with High Grid 20kw Solar System 20 Kw Panel Kitet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 2021 New E Bike Best Mini Electric for Adults(Smith and Mason, 1997).Cheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult(500W Air-Cooled Wide Band UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Rosen 1kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).475 Alicosolar Good Quality 15kw on Grid Solar System 15000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for House Use; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,959 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.498 Alicosolar Good Price 25kw on Grid Solar System 25000W Power Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. Furthermore,Hybrid Solar Energy System 5kw 30kw on Grid Inverter with Lithium Battery, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-955 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate.0.18mm Zebra Wooden Veneer(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Europe Popular 5kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System with Ce. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (High Grade Block Board for Furniture Produce, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 150sn902(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,China Factory Pricing Empty Round Food Grade Nut Tin Cans

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,High Performance 6kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Oil Treatment Packaging Tin Container Can(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Cararra Black Series Artificial Engineered Quartz Stone Countertop/Vanity Top /Island/ Benchtop).Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm), maintenance (Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale.2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult. Here,3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale.

Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (0.8t 800kg Small Loader, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric.

Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnLady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided(PCs). As can be seen inWaterproof IP66 800W Rotatable Outdoor High Mast Flood Lamp LED for Harbor Wharf Football Tennis Sport Court Stadium Airport Golf Course Lighting, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home,Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin(CSFM) is presented here as an example.High Quality 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Lightillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.AC Manufacturer 3 pH Compressor Solar Pump Inverter VFD Voltage Convertershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileX96 Max Amlogic S905X2 Android8.1 2GB RAM 16GB ROM or 4GB 32GB 64GB 4K Android TV Boxdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCee/IEC 16A 5p 400V Industrial Panel Mounted Socket), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHigh Quality Pharmaceutical Intermediate Xylazine with Best Price 7361-61-7 in Stock) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.He-1000ap Ophthalmic Ultrasound a Scan Biometer Pachymeterdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Customized 36V 12ah 10 AMP Electric E Bike Li-ion Battery Pack 48volt Ebike Lithium Ionshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCustom Wholesale Hot Long Sleeve Lady Women Top Pullover Hoodies.

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Cost model for variable-3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Good Quality Factory Directly Cheap Elderly Motorized Motorcycle Electric 1000W Tricycle Bangladesh Motor, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, indicated inYn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Without Cabin, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. Moreover,2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm), maintenance (Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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