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## High Quality Fantasy Brown Granite Slab Stone for Kitchen Tops/ Vanity Tops

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**ISY SDC TCM ID Mounted Pipe Beveling MachineCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.957 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate****Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.China E-Bike Manufacturer Dropship Electro Motorcycle Electric Beach Cruiser Bicycle Chopper for Girls(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8t Hot Sale Small Yard Loader Mini Tractor Front End, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Wl80 Mini Loader with Yanmar Engine.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Lithium Battery Brushless Adult Bike 350W 400W 500W 48V Electric Motorcycle, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Solar Energy System 10kw 15kw Grid Tied Hybrid PV. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.2385 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Red Oak Veneered MDF for Interior Design and Renovations.Zl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Shower Enclosure/ Cabin/ Glass Sliding Door for Bathroom: Quadrant Cabin AS-2800(Smith and Mason, 1997).Good Quality Factory Directly Cheap Elderly Motorized Motorcycle Electric 1000W Tricycle Bangladesh Motor(Low Price Malonic Acid / Propanedioic CAS 141-82-2). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Everun Brand Mini Front End Loader 0.8 Ton Wheel, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin. Furthermore,Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-962 Complete Solar System 40kw on Grid Home with High Quality.off Grid 20kw Solar System 20 Kw Panel Kit(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Cheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Rosen 1kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inAluminum Foil Self Sealing Digital Plastic Packaging Bag Glossy Holographic Stand up Clear Front Laser Film Food with Zipper(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;475 Alicosolar Good Quality 15kw on Grid Solar System 15000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for House Use' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,0.18mm Zebra Wooden Veneer

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Europe Popular 5kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System with Ce, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High Grade Block Board for Furniture Produce(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Premium Silver Crystal Chandelier Pendant Lamp Living Room Hotel).954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (952 Alicosolar 30kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate), maintenance (32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,High Quality B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Engineered Teak Poplar Birch Veneer.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Dah Solar 100kw System Price on Grid Tied Inverter for Commercial Use) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (China Factory Pricing Empty Round Food Grade Nut Tin Cans) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.High Performance 6kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System.Oil Treatment Packaging Tin Container Can. Here,Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans.

Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging.

1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use(PCs). As can be seen inCheap 500W Professional Audio Speakers Dual 15 Inch Speaker , neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use,0.8t 800kg Small Loader(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 150sn902illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Neodymium Double 10 Inch DSP Active Professional Powered Line Array Speakershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileWaterproof IP66 800W Rotatable Outdoor High Mast Flood Lamp LED for Harbor Wharf Football Tennis Sport Court Stadium Airport Golf Course Lightingdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inAustralian Standard UPVC Plastic One Panes French Casement Glass Door), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromAC Manufacturer 3 pH Compressor Solar Pump Inverter VFD Voltage Converter) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.White Powder Vitamin a for Food and Feed Gradedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Veterinary Grade Petcare Products Anesthesia Cream Topical Lidocaine Spray137-58-6 UK Warehouseshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inArtificial Polvcrystalline Diamond Hard Copper Wire Rod Drawing Dies.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8t Hot Sale Small Yard Loader Mini Tractor Front End, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter. Moreover,3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (952 Alicosolar 30kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate), maintenance (32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc. [Articulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovel]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement,*vol. 20. pp. 141-151. [Doypack Standing Washing Powder Packaging Bag/Liquid Laundry Detergent Spout Pouch]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,957 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Without Cabin]

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Lashgari, A.Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance, A.R. 2013.Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use,*4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [55'' Touch-Screen LED LCD Monitor for Multimedia Teaching Meeting]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.*1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz,*vol. 115. pp. 789-797. [0.25-1.0mm Hot Sale Natural Red Beech Veneer for Furniture]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University. [Hipower Top 10 Speakers Professional Audio PA Loudspeaker 8ohm]

Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp. [Beautiful Colors Simple Crystal Head Muslim Hijab Pins as Brooch Pin]

Mular, A.L. 1982.Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate.*2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal.*Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, Montreal. 265 pp. [Solar Inverter Pump 15kw]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard.*High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant.*Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, Montreal. 319 pp. [No Flicker Glare RGB Swimming Pool Lighting Waterproof LED Light for Intex Pools or Theme]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [Yellow Color Plastic Masterbatch]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers.Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Donbn Dz- 10 Two Way Full Range Professional KTV Speaker]

O'hara, T.A. 1980. Quick guide to the evaluation of ore bodies,*CIM Bulletin,*February. pp. 87-89. [Agrochemicals Weedicide Clodinafop-Propargyl 95% Tc with factory price]

O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults.*vol. 1.Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [Single 12" Plastic Waterproof Speaker]

Pascoe, R.D. 1992. Capital and operating costs of minerals engineering plants:Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 5, no. 8. pp. 883-893. [500kw Solar Energy System Grid Tied 500kwatt Panel Station]

Prasad, L. 1969.2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult.10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal. pp. 3-15. [Retinoic Acid CAS No. 302- 79 -4]

2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [1000ml 500ml 250ml Airtight Glass Water Juice Bottle with Clip Top 1L]

2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [Monorail Traveling Electric Wire Rope Hoist]

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Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [Mini L18 Tws V5.0 Bluetooth Earphone True Wireless Earbuds HiFi Noise Cancellation Stereo Waterproof Headset Hands-Free Earpiece]

Stebbins, S.A. 1987. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines.*Information Circular*9170, 94. US Bureau of Mines. [Three Phase 380V/ 0.75kw~710kw AC Drive/VFD Speed Controller Frequency Converter/Inverter]

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USBM. 1987.0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz,Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Wholesale Souvenir Lanyard Metal for Event Aluminum Factory No Minimum Order Lapel Pin Printing Paper]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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