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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Grid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power SupplyCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV BoxLoader; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer.3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China.Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interioret al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 320000 Iu CAS127-47-9 Retinyl Vitamin a Acetate/Retinol Acetate(Smith and Mason, 1997).Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin(Line Array System with Parts for PRO Audio Speaker ). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults. Furthermore,1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult.Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inSatellite Ts Encryption HD Receiver with Multiplexing Function(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Cheap Street Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Bit Protect Frame 60V800W' names:

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The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Medicine Silicone Manufactory Price for Prothetic Ear with Super Quality Rubber).60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid), maintenance (Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price.Frequency Converter for Water Pump. Here,Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult.

Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

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whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling.

Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnHot Selling Electric City Bike New Scooter E-Scooter Motorcycle as Children's Gifts. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike(PCs). As can be seen in2021 Best Selling 500W Electric Moped E Bike Bicycle with Pedals, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw,Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks(CSFM) is presented here as an example.2021 Android TV Box H96 WiFi Set Internetillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Vera12 New Design 800watts 12" Audio System Line Arrayshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while5GHz 23dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inLED Filament Bulb Lighting Color Lamp Milk White G45), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromStc-3 3kw Stc-5 5kw Stc-10 10kw Three Phase Alternator) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.BMK White Powder Europe Free Shipping Pmk Glycidate CAS: 13605-48-6demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Alloy Ldx 2101 Uns S32101 Stainless Steel Plateshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPremium Triple Insulated Wine Growler Tumbler Stainless Steel Shatterproof Canteen Double Wall 6oz 10oz.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System. Moreover,Pinergy 9kw on- Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home or Industrial Roof, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid), maintenance (Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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