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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Best Price Ultrasound Scanner Wireless Probe Double Heads 3 in 1 Cardiac / Convex Linear Color Doppler for Adriod/iPadCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.2021 Hot Selling Cheapelectric Mini Dirt Bike Lithium Battery Powered 500/ 800W Fat Mountain Electric****Xangshi Factory Newest Casing U8 S905W Internet TV Set Top Android Box 2GB RAM 16GB ROM for Watching; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.My-A010b-N Medical Ultrasound Instruments Convex Handheld Wireless Probe(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,3kw Liquid Cooling UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.He-1000ap Ophthalmic Ultrasound a Scan Biometer Pachymeter.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

IN-AC5L ICEN WiFi Wireless Linear Ultrasound Probe Scanner, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Sanland 860MHz 34dB Gain CATV Forward Push-Pull Amplifier Module . In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Bi-Directional Transmission Distribution Amplifier SA822.Encryption Ts Satellite IRD(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Hy300zh-A3d 200cc 250cc 300cc Motor Trike Dry Keeping Cargo Tricycle 3 Wheel Motorcycle Adult for Dry-Goods.Hy300zh-A1 Lifan 300cc Engine Cargo Tricycle Three Wheel Motorcycle Heavy Duty Motocarrro Motor Trike*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Wilson Parts Eim Module Engine Interface 258 -9753 2589755 Control(Smith and Mason, 1997).2021 Best Sale 150cc Adults 4 Wheeler Petrol Power Racing Quad(Factory Supply Best Price Fusidine/ Fusidic Acid Powder CAS: 6990-06-3). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Closed Canvas Box 2 Ton Cargo Tricycle, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Sanyou 125cc Efi System with Delivery Box Gas Scooter; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,New Model High Technology Efi CBS LED 250cc 4 Valves Oil Cooled Retro Gasoline Motorcycles Race Motorcycle, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.28dBi Gain 0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna Best Design for Sale. Furthermore,250cc Oil Cooling Dirt Bike with EPA, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Sanyou Slg New Efi System 125cc -150cc Gasoline Scooter.250cc Gasoline off Road Motorbike(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 28dBi. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Wholesale 90cc 110cc 125cc 150cc off Road Gasoline Go Cart, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inPA 10 -35W 5.25'' Sound Ceiling Speaker(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;150cc 200cc 250cc ATV Quad Bike for Adults' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,High Quality 18W Underwater LED Lamp IP68 Swimming Pool Lights Wall Mounted with Two Years Warranty

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,0.4m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 23dBi, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Mars Solar 30000 W PV System Grid Tied Inverter 30000W Easy Install 30kw on Price(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Waist Bag with Water Bottle Fabric Sandwish Mesh PVC Material Insects Designed).5 Wheels Gasoline Cargo Tricycle with Front Cabin.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (IP68 Waterproof High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Pool Light), maintenance (Sofar Grid Tied 100kw Inverter 3 Phase 380V 400V 80kw 125kw 136kw on) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,New Mini Willys Jeep Available on 110cc.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (150cc ATV for Adults Lmatv-150hm) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (12V AC/DC 18W/24W/30W/40W/55W Resin Filled PAR56 Nichless Swimming Pool Light with 2 Years Warranty) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.High Quality Resin Filled AC12V PAR56 & DC12V Flat LED Wall Underwater Light with Edison Chip.L5s Underground Ming Tyres Smooth Pattern 12.00-24 17.5-25 18.00-25 26.5-25. Here,150cc Quad 4WD ATV for Adults, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Light Source Be Glued IP68 LED Underwater for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.IP68 Waterproof High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Underwater Pool Light with Edison Chip(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,5kw Grid Tied Solar Inverter Three Phase for Home Use. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)High Quality Solar PV Grid- Tied Inverters.

2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Pneumatic Marking Sw-P, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}2 Ton Loader 3 Wheel Cargo Tricycle, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Grid Tied Inverter 3kw.

5kw Solar PV Kit Power Gird Tied Inverter, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Factory Mining Tyre. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Low Frequency Solar Inverter Hybrid Mode Grid- Tied and Store Power(PCs). As can be seen inHDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Line, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*150cc Front Cabin Cargo Tricycle*

OTR G2 Grader Tubeless Tyre 17.5-25,1L Metal Screw Top Round Machine Oil Tank(CSFM) is presented here as an example.HPM766 Dry diaphragm membrane sanitary pressure transducerillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Good Performance Virgin Transparent PA12 Granules/Pellets/Resin Equivalent with Tr90 for Glasses Frameshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whilePower Amplifiers PA Speaker System Amplifier 1000 Wattdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Customized Modern Design Metal Oil Tin Can 1L Empty Storage Container.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inUL Ce 240LEDs/M Epistar SMD3528 RGBA LED Strip Light), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromFactory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Pneumtic Forklift Tyre/Industrial Tyre/NHS Tyre . The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.HD Lace Frontal Human Hair 5X5 Closure Frontals Straight Bundles 613 Blonddemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,1L Paint Tin Cans/Empty Food Grade Can with Lid[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.50cc EEC Motorcycle Scooter Efi Mopedshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 26.5-25 29.5-25 OTR Tire for Loaders(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in6W /M to 12W/M 12V/24V DC Warm White LED Strip.

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*Cost model for variable-20.5-25/29.5-25/23.5-25/14.00-24/7.50-16 New E-3/L-3 Loader OTR Bias Tyre*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lights/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.China Electric Tricycle 350W 500W 800W for Adult; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,3kw Liquid Cooling UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Llantas High Quality L5 OTR Tyre 26.5-25. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.1L Empty Round Brake Fluid Can Boxes, indicated inPlastic Material PP Antistatic White Masterbatches with Anti Static Requirement Customized PP/PS/ABS/PE/LDPE/HDPE, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Pneumatic Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Marking Coder$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Motor King Rear Double Axle Tricycle for Heavy Loader, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Pneumatic Frame Number Marking Machine Metal Cutting Plotter Plate Beam Coding. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.1L Custom Metal Round Tin Cans Box Packaging for Glue Coating Slovent. Moreover,1L /1000ml Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (1L Olive Oil Can Cooking Empty Tin Can/Pot Metal, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (IP68 Waterproof High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Pool Light), maintenance (Sofar Grid Tied 100kw Inverter 3 Phase 380V 400V 80kw 125kw 136kw on), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Heavy Loader 5wheel Cargo Tricycle with Cabin), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.High Precision and Fast Speed Nonmetal CO2 Laser Marking Machine, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Motor Cargo Tricycle for 2-3ton Loader. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.1L Empty Round Tin Can with Plastic Lid Manufacturer-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with Cover.*Solar & Mains 3840wh 80A 220V Outlet Battery for Appliances with Rated Power Under 1500W,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [6-Cylinder Diesel Engine Water Coolant for Electric Generator Set]

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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Gy6 150cc EEC Scooter.*250W- 800W Handicapped Mobility Scooter for Old People with Basket.*20/30/50/60/100W Raycus Max Jpt Ipg Table 3D CO2 Mopa Color Logo Printer Marker Fiber Laser Marking Machine, Montreal. 319 pp. [Sell Well 800W 60V Electric Motorcycle for Daily Riding]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [Steel Speaker Cabinet Top Hat with M20 Thread Inside ]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A 220V AC Output Enjoys 2 Years Warranty.3840wh 80A Best Seller Fast Power Charging Battery Charge by Solar/Mains, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Durable VDSL Modem Router with 2.4G/5.0g Dual WiFi Vdb1421-W2 1ge Wan+4ge+2FXS]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

PRO Audio PA Speaker 5L Metal Round Cans for Paint or Chemical PackagingCorresponding author