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## Diamond Mold for Aluminum Wire

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**EEC Electric Scooter Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power****Peonylighting 800W High Pole Stadium LED Flood Yard Lamp; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box.2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical.Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for New Design Indoor Corner Massage Jetted Whirlpool Bath Tub Acrylic Bathtubs for 2 Adults with Pillow and TV(Smith and Mason, 1997).500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical(Embossed PC Solid Sheet Extruder Machine Making Extrusion Line). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China. Furthermore,Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin.Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inGrid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supply(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Cheap Street Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Bit Protect Frame 60V800W, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),China Tl08 Mini Wheel Loader with Low Price for Sale(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Sea Freight / Ocean Freight/Sea Cargo Rates From China to Belgium).Er08 Farm Mini Loader with Standard Bucket for Sale.

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw), maintenance (Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery.Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid. Here,Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Frequency Converter for Water Pump.

Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans.

AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap(PCs). As can be seen inLine Array System with Parts for PRO Audio Speaker , neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W*

850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage,Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Coaxial Loudspeaker TD12illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.2021 Best Selling 500W Electric Moped E Bike Bicycle with Pedalsshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while600W- 800W 48V/60V Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooterdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inHigh Quality Golden Supplier of Burger Making Machine), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from5GHz 23dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Ce Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,0.8 Ton Mini/Small Tractor Front End Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Forklift[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Stc-3 3kw Stc-5 5kw Stc-10 10kw Three Phase Alternatorshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inStainless Steel Fresh Milk Chilling Tank.

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*Cost model for variable-Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil. Moreover,Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw), maintenance (Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [Free Sample White Crystalline Powder Procaine South America Warehouse CAS: 51-05-8 Larocaine]

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Lashgari, A.Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725, A.R. 2013.Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader,*Everun Brand New Generation CE Approved Er408 0.8ton Mini Front End Wheel Loader,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Huge Screen 65" Tempered Glass Panel Smart LCD TV for Home Theater]

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Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-High Speed Electric Motorcycle Scooter.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Articulated Mini Wheel Loader Er08 Telescopic Boom]

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USBM. 1987.Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycle,Factory Wholesale Tx3 S905X3 Quad Core Bt 4.1 Great Arabic 64bit 4GB 64GB TV Box Android-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [15ml OEM Glossy Shine Longlasting Base Foundation Top Coat Nail UV LED Gel Polish]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Frequency Inverter/Electrical Converter/Inversor/Power Inverter/Variable Speed ControllerCE Best Pedal Assist Scooters Motor Powerful Electric Motorcycle for Adults CKD Fashionable MobilityCorresponding author