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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Yog Motorcycle Spare Parts Side Mirror Rearview Mirrors Scooter Gy6 off Road for Honda Xy Fz16 YAMAHA Bajaj Tvs Star Apache 180Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Hot PC Resin Filled 18W AC RGB Wall Mounted LED Underwater Light with Two Years Warranty****Powered Line Array Active Stage Speaker; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.20watt Mopa Laser Marking Machine for Anodized Aluminum Black(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Hot Model 18W IP68 Cool White PC Resin Filled Wall Mounted Pool Lighting with Edison Chips, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

2021 New E Bike Best Mini Electric for Adults, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Power Saver Device . In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,1liter Empty Paint Tin Can with Lids Factory.No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

60V800W Electric Scooter with Highlight Rear Box.Empty Canister White Metal Round Packaging Cans Box Tea Tins*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 6inch Bar PA Full Sound Speaker System Audio Muslims(Smith and Mason, 1997).2021 Best Selling Dual Battery Pedal Assisted Electric Scooter Bicycle(1200Mbps Wireless WiFi Extender Repeater/Router Dual Band 2.4 & 5GHz Wps Signal Strong Penetrability). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Edison Chip, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Hot Selling X96 Mini Amlogic S905W 1GB 8GB TV Box Android 7.0 4K Full HD Quad Core Smart for Internet; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Vintage Chinese Factory Customizable Classical Retro Style Cruiser Ebike Moped, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Gogo Electric Moped Scooter Opg-Em022 Motor Power 800W 60V20ah Chaowei Tianneng Battery. Furthermore,20'' 36V 500W Folding Electric Bike 35km/H with 12ah Lithium Battery, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Electricity Power Saver for Industry .Hidden Lithium Power City Bike Mountain Electric Bicycle 250/350/500/ 800W Ebike(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Malaysia Laser Marking Machines for Jewellery. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Enclosed Covered Tricycle with Wagon, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inIntelligent Power Saver for Industry Use(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Color Marking 20W Fiber Laser Machine Price for Metal' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,10W 20W 30W portable Fiber Laser Marking Machine

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,CATV 860MHz One Way Amplifier, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),CATV Optical Receiver Module Bgo887bo Excellent Flatness 40 to 860 MHz(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Pyrites Lump).CATV Amplifier Module Bgy887 24V 22.6db Excellent Return Loss Properties.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (High Efficiency SIM Card Fiber Laser Marking Machine), maintenance (2021 New Machine Grade CO2 Laser Marking with a Discount) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,20W Fiber Laser Color Marking Machine for Colorful on Stainless Steel.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Mopa Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Black Printing) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (20W Table Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal Stainless Steel) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Portable Handheld Metal Plastic DOT Peen Marking Machine.5150-5850MHz Sector Panel Antenna with Gain 13dBi. Here,Dirt Bike for Sport Using with Large Power Engine, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Electricity Saver Device .

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.3 Phase 50 - 60Hz Intelligent Power Saver(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-High Efficient Industrial Electric Motor Power Saver) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,EEC 125/300cc Euro 5V Max Scooter-Alex One. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Electricity Power Reducer .

Nylon OTR Bias Tyre/Tire Manufacture E3/L3 15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Electrical Saver Box , Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Sector Panel Antenna , R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 OTR Tire.

Growatt 2kw on Grid Inverter 2000W Tied for Solar Power System Home, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Motorbike for 320cc with Police Cruiser Using Dry Weight 180kg. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Heavy Duty Truck Tire 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25(PCs). As can be seen in20W/30W/50W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal/Plastic and All The Metals, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Three Wheel Motor Tricycle Rickshaw Rear Axle*

Gas Powered Adult Tricycle Motor Farm,Motorcar for Both Civilc and Police Using with 320cc Displacement(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Cold&Heat Seal Plastic Film Roll Chocolate Bar Food Cookies Packaging Bag Frosted Zipper Container Made Craft Drawstring Low MOQ Printingillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Jwell-PVC Plastic Foaming|Semi-Skinning Board Recycling Agricultural Making Extrusion|Co-Extrusion Machine for Furniture Decoration Factory Direct Buyshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Inverterdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Police Using of Motorcycle for Cruiser with Displacement 320cc.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in1.45m Length Balboa Whirlpool Two Person Outdoor SPA Bathtub), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from98% Uvarigranol B\C\D\E Standard Reference Materials Plant Extracts) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.7kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Quadrant Framed Grey Glass Shower Enclosure Sliding Door Simple Roomdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,5.8GHz WLAN/WiFi 0.9m Dual-Polarized Parabolic Antenna 32dBi Gain[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Uns S32750 2507 S32760 F55 1.4501 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Barshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.45cm Offset Satellite TV Antenna with 200 Hour UV Test(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCrystal Ashtray / Cigarette Glass with Bamboo Base.

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*Cost model for variable-5.8g Omni Antenna/Dual Frequency Antenna 2.4G 5.8g/2400-2500MHz Omi*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].45cm Offset Satellite Dish TV Antennas/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Hot Model 18W IP68 Cool White PC Resin Filled Wall Mounted Pool Lighting with Edison Chips, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

2.4-2.5GHz/5-5.8GHz Dual Frequency WiFi Antenna Internet for Things. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.E3/L3 17.5-25 20.5-25 1800-25 Durable Tyres for Scrapers, indicated inCrystal Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate for Coumpound, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

C Band Satellite TV Antenna 150cm$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Eougem Original Cheap Radlader 0.8ton with Standard Bucket Made in China, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Dsola ODM/OEM Design High Efficient Mc4 Connector 3 in 1. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Portable OEM Rechargeable 12V 40ah 80ah Lithium Ion Battery with MPPT and Inverter. Moreover,Mc4t-Branch Connector for Parallel Solar Panel Pair Male and Female, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (4000W/5000W off Grid Tied Solar Power System, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (High Efficiency SIM Card Fiber Laser Marking Machine), maintenance (2021 New Machine Grade CO2 Laser Marking with a Discount), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Internet TV Box Linux IPTV Zgemma I55), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.L-Guard Wheel Loader L-5 OTR 45/65-45 Cheap Wholesale Tyres, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},High Quality 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.24V 40ah Lithium Iron Battery for Electric Bike-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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