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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Ultrasonic a B Scan Ophthalmic Eye Ultrasound Scanner with Low PriceCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Wholesale Arabic Style Modular Furniture Top Genuine Leather Living Room Set with Tea TableElectric Motorcycle Fashion Design 800W with Removable Battery; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Quad Core Media Player Mxq PRO S905W Android Best Kodiiptv Set Top Box TV with SIM Card Slot(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,High Quality Footbath Sofa / Foot Massage, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.New Products Lift Recliner Chair Sofa .

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


SP-KS410) Customized Fabric Softwood Frame Sofa, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,IPTV Reseller Panel for Qhdtv Susbcription 1year Code Wholesale 1500+ Live & VOD Sports News Channels Arabic French Belgium African Andoird TV Box. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Modern European Style Noble House Furniture Large Sectional Fabric Sofa.Factory Offer Nordic Removable and Washable Livingroom Fabric Sofa(Khalesiet al.,2015).

1 Year Qhdtv Abonnement IPTV Subscription Code Europe Spain Portugal France Italia Arabic Italy French Belgium for Android Smart TV Box M3u.World IPTV Reseller Panel Magnum Credits Arabic France USA Canada Latins Brazil Spain Israel Africa Works on M3u Smart TV Android Boxet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 380V 400Hz 3p AC Drive Hot 15kw Frequency Converter(Smith and Mason, 1997).800kg Wheel Loader Mini 780 Radlader(1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Quilted Fabric Sofa Couch Bed Set Armchear Furniture, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).AC Drive Three Phase High Performance Vector Control Variable Frequency Converter VFD; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Modern Home Hotel Lesuire Corner Single Fabric Living Room Sofa, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Living Room Furniture. Furthermore,Allwinner T95 H616 4GB RAM Octa Core 32GB ROM 6GB Digital Mini Satellite Receiver 8K Smart TV Box Android 10, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Cheapest Set Top Box Mxq PRO Rk3229 Android 7.1 Quad Core 1GB 8GB TV.Nordic Leather Sofa Modern Simple Three Seats(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Best Selling Modern Design Living Room Classic Leather Recliner Massage Chinese Home Furniture. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Wholesale Folding Bed Space Saving Furniture Sofa Modern Recliner, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inAnti-Scratch PC Polycarbonate Impact Solid Sheet Extrusion Machine(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Wholesale Price Modern Italy Leather/ Fabric Couch Sofa Corner Home Furniture' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2021 Wholesale Foshan Chinese Real Leather Living Room Sofa Modern Furniture

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,VFD Ultra-Low-Noise Delixi 55kw 720va Variable Frequence Inverter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Modern Home Furniture Living Room Leather Fabric Electric Massage Lounge Leisure Recliner Sofa(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Semi Closed H Type Power Press 80ton).7.5kw VFD Drives/ Frequence Inverter/Converter/ AC Drive Enc.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Wholesale Folding Bed   Recliner Sofa Beds Fabric), maintenance (Modern Furniture) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Foshan Factory Wholesale High Quality Living Room Leather Sofa.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Tx6s H616 32GB ROM Recorder Android 4GB RAM Stick Set Top 2021 SIM Card Ott WiFi Andriod Smart TV Box) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Motor Electronic Power Frequency Converter 380V 2.2kw) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Pipo X8 Mini PC Smart TV Box.Twisan Honoured Production 800kg Small Front End Loader with High Quality. Here,Frequency Inverter 380V 50/60Hz, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-15kw Frequency Inverter for Solar Panel and Fan Pump Input 380-600V DC.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.AC Drive for Bridge Crane VFD Using Mono Overhead 3pH 380V 11kw(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Mini Variable-Frequency Drive/ VFD /Adjustable-Frequency Drive /Afd/ Variable-Voltage/Variable-Frequency /Vvvf/Drive/ Variable Speed /VSD/AC) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Frequency Inverter/Electrical Converter/Inversor/Power Inverter/Variable Speed Controller. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)50 to 60 Hz Frequency Converter.

AC Variable Vector Frequency Inverter, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Chinese Supplier of Variable Frequency Drive/AC/DC Motor Speed Controller, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

AC Drive Solar Charge Controller 3 pH Inverter Welding Machine Elevator Motor Price, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,AC Drive Frequnce Converter 5.5kw Pump Use .

0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Lowest Price, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnVFD AC Drive. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Automatic Motor Speed Controller Variable AC Drive 1/3 Phase 1.5 Kw 220 V/380 V(PCs). As can be seen inPRO Audio Speaker 12 Inch Sub PA Passive Speakers, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Small Variable-Frequency Drive ,VFD Motor Drive Inverter Converter 1.5kw / 2.2kw 220V Variable Frequency(CSFM) is presented here as an example.PNG Easy Install 12kw 15kw Grid Tied System with Home Delivery Serviceillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Excellent Mechanical High Transparency Transparent Nylon PA12 for Glassesshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileGurjan Veneer Keruingdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,VFD AC 380V 1.5kw Three Phase Inverter Frequency Converter Variable Drive.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCalcatta Polished Surfaces Engineered Quartz Stone. Slab with NSF SGS Certification.), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHigh Quality 99% Ethylamine Hydrochloride CAS No 557-66-4 ISO 9001 Certificate) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Compact Mini Farm Loader 800kg Wheel for Sale. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Fertilizer N21%demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Frequency China Vector Control AC Drive Power Supply Inverter Solar Converter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.PA Resin for Gravure Plastic and Paper Printing Inkshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.0.8ton Zl08f Small Wheel Loader(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inOppein Bohemia PVC Wood Grain Wholesale Bathroom Cabinets Vanity.

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Cost model for variable-Loading Machine

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Mini Radlader with Ce for Germany and Sweden Market/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.China Compact Payloader Zl08 Mini Front End Wheel Loader with Ce; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,High Quality Footbath Sofa / Foot Massage, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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0.8t Multifunctional Hydraulic Wheel Loader for Farm$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Android TV Box X96 Air 4GB 32GB Media Player, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)China Articulated Wheel Loader Mr 908 Euro Style 800kg /0.8ton Mini for Sale. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Construction Equipment Mini Wheel Loader with Quick Hitch. Moreover,Avant Zl08f Mini Wheel Loader for Sale, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Chinese Mini Radlader 800kg Wheel Loader with Pirce, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Wholesale Folding Bed   Recliner Sofa Beds Fabric), maintenance (Modern Furniture), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Frequency Converter 0.5 HP), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.125HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Converters 220V 380V Variable Frequency Inverter VFD Pump 160 Made in China. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.AC Board China Vector Control 60Hz to 50Hz VFD Drive Price-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Cylindrical Roller Bearing N19/ 710 Nu19/ Nup19/ Apply for Large and Medium-Sized Electric MotorSuper Cooling Smart Electric Scooter 500W 800W MotorcycleCorresponding author

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