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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/FarmCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.IP67 1000V 3 to 1 PV Mc4 T Branch Solar Connector****Gy6 Engine Gas Scooter; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Portable Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Vin Code/Number(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,1L Empty Round Edilbe Cooking Oil Metal Tin, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2021 Set Top Box Global Version S922X TV Smart HD Android 9.0 Internet 8K.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Max Source Fiber Machine Laser Marking for Vin Number, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,1L Custom Round Small Metal Empty Tin Cans with Lids. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,2021 Hot Sale 18watt RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Two Years Warranty.500W/ 800W Brushless Motor Electric Mobility Scooter for Cargo (Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

1L Microstome Metal Drum Customization Printing Logo.1L Metal Tin Cans with Lid for Paint or Chemical*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Jwell-PLA Biodegradable Sheet Recycling Cup Making Extrusion Machine(Smith and Mason, 1997).Free Sample 5GHz Antenna Rubber Gain(Moped Motorbike Scooter Dirt Street Bike Gas 50cc 125cc Petrol Motor Gasoline Cub EEC & Coc 2 Wheel Racing Motorcycle F66 ). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Sanland 860MHz 34dB Gain CATV Push-Pull Amplifier Module , Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).1L Printed Round Metal Paint Tin Can with Lid; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,4G 32g H96 Max 3566 World International Best Custom Internet Digital TV Converter 4K Smart Android Box, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.38mm 42mm CATV Plug in 0~20dB Hfc Attenuator Pad. Furthermore,Round Shape Paint Chemical Coating 1L Metal Tin Can / Canister with Lid, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-High Quality 18watt RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Two Years Warranty.E-Bike / Electric Scooter /Electric Moped 60V/72V 20ah 800W 1kw 2kw(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Sy-A041 Medical Equipment Portable Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scanner. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Optical Power Adjustable , 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in10'' Ferrite Woofer Best Price Loudspeaker(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Dirt Bike for 199 Cc Displacement' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,150cc Enclosed Gasoline Motorized Cargo Trike with Box

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Xprobe Series Built-in Screen Wireless Probe Type Ultrasound Scanner, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Power Saver Box Energy(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Bathroom Round Soaking Lucite Simple Acrylic Bath Tub Freestanding SPA Bathtub).Power Saver Energy Saving Device.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Power Saver for Industrial ), maintenance (Industry Saveing Box ) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Industry Saveing Box .076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Motorcyle with Bore * Stroke 66*58.2 mm) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Electricity Saving Device 600amp ) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.250cc Motor Cabin Tricycle Cargo with Canopy.Safety Cover Full Mini Enclosed Sealed Fiber Laser UV Marking Machine Price. Here,Flexible Label Laser Marking Machine, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Flying Laser Marking System Marker.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.800W Color Fashion Electric Motorcycle(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-20W 30W 50W 150X150mm 200X200mm Lens Metal Steel Fiber Laser Machine) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Label Marking Equipment Laser Machine for Car Body Labels. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Electric Bike 800W ODM Mountain Ebike with Powerful Motor.

Latest Electric Scooter 800W Citycoco, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (16/24 Channel RF Combiner Passive Mixer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}150cc Cheap Open Gas Reverse Trike , R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Sport Using Motor Vehicle with Sealed Chain Final Drive.

GS-a 12mm CATV Fixed RF Attenuator, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*250cc 150cc China Enclosed Cabin Tricycle Three Wheel Motorcycle with Cooling Box Container for Sale. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Automatic High Effective Medical Ultrasound Bone Densitometer (PCs). As can be seen inSectional Stanford Sofa, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*New 50cc Monkey Bike Gasoline Motorcycle Euro 4*

China 250cc New 3 Wheel Motorcycle Motor Tricycle,3ru 24 in 1 CATV Fixed Channel Modulator (CSFM) is presented here as an example.Topleo I96 King 1GB/2GB RAM Smart Android 7.1 Quad Core Internet 4K Ultra HD Support TV Boxillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.2-30mm Hot Sale Double Sided E0/E1 Glue Melamine/Fancy Plywood for Furnitureshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileBp Grade Benzyl Benzoate 99% Mindemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,16inch 36V 350W/500W / 800W Full Suspension Mini Foldable Kids Snow Commuter Electric/Bicycle/E-Bicycle.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inGood Quality Press Brake Die Metal Tool Heat Treatment Long Term Using Life), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHot Sale and Competitive Price Electric Motorcycle Scooter for Daily) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Motor Tricycle Three Wheel Cargo Trike for Sale. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Square Tin with Airtight Lever Lid for Teademonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Motorbicycle for Well Done Accessories[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.PVC Marble Coated Decorative Sheet Production Line Extrudershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.16 in 1 CATV Modulator Fixed Frequency(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in485*92*72 Yanmar Sv100.1 Construction Machinery Rubber Track.

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*Cost model for variable-8 Channels HDMI to DVB-T Modulator*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Medical Equipment Ho-200 Ophthalmic a/B Ultrasound Scanner/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Motor Vehicle for High Speed and Stable Function; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,1L Empty Round Edilbe Cooking Oil Metal Tin, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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New Racing Motorcycle$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Cheap 3 Wheel Cargo Tricycle with Box , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Clinical Equipment Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer for Hospital. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Motorcycle for 1405mm of Wheel Base. Moreover,IN-BA1 Excellent Ultrasound Bone Densitometer for Adults and Children from China, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (5150-5850MHz Sector Panel Antenna with 2*16dBi Gain for Best Design, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Power Saver for Industrial ), maintenance (Industry Saveing Box ), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,China Ophthalmic Equipment), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Hot Sale Jincheng Jc200t-8 Scooter Motorcycle with Good Price, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},China Gas Scooters 2 Stroke Euro 4 125cc Moto Moped Motor EPA 49cc 50cc 150cc EEC Motorcycle Gasoline Scooter. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Best Selling Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scanner Full Digital Touch Screen-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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