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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Water Proof Vet Ultrasound ScannerCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.China 125cc Moto Efi Euro 4 2t 4t Stroke Motorcycle Motor 49cc 50cc 150cc Moped EPA EEC Gas Scooter****Mini Size Water Differential Pressure Sensor for HVAC; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.China Al-Gw6 800W Electric Motorbike with 60V/20ah Battery(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Linux TV Box International Internet Smart IPTV Zgemma I55, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for BMW.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

20" Inch Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for Astonmartin, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,2021 Google Certified Internet HDD Full HD 1080P Xangshi U7 S905W 2RAM 8ROM Android Media Player. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for Volkswagen VW Tiguan Atlas Touareg.Hot Sell Good Quality Best China Manufacturer Factory Price Transvaginal Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Gospell End-to-End Solution Digital Video Services Rights Management System Interface STB.Medical Automatic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer in Low Price*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Low Failure Rate High Efficiency Induction Metal Heating Machine (Smith and Mason, 1997).Yj-Ubd7a Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Made in China(hot selling small avant articulated tractor wheel loader for garden landscaping). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Biometer & Pachymeter Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).IN-A4CPL Portable Wireless WiFi ultrasound color doppler scanner machine; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Made in China, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Diesel Central Drive Three Wheel Dumper for Sale. Furthermore,Chinese Product Best Price Microconvex Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Clinical Equipment Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer for Hospital.Apr125 White Motorcycle(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Apr125 Red Motorcycle. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Apr125-2 White Motorcycle, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCheap Popular Pattern 3.00-18 Motorcycle Tyre(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Underwater Swimming Pool Light Decoration LED Lamp' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Diesel Cargo Three Wheel Tricycle for Sale From China

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Diesel Dump Central Steering Drive Three Wheeler From China for Sale, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Chinese Diesel Three Wheel Tricycle with Sunshade(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (CNC Machine Router 2040 with Hybrid Vacuum T-Slot Table 1224 1325 1530 for Acrylic Wood MDF Plywood Aluminum Guitar).One and Half Rows Three Wheeler for Sale.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Chinese Wholesale Gas Powered EPA Ce Trike Scooter 300cc), maintenance (Adult 800W Power Electric Scooter Suit for Woman) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,800W Electric Motorbike with Front Disc Brake.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Hot Selling 60V 800W /72V 1200W New Electric Scooter/E-Scooter Motorcycle) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (dB002e Hot Sell Electric Motorcycle 800W and Kids 500W with Ce for) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.350W/500W/ 800W /1000W/1200W Motor Electric Scooter EW-519 Classis Model.800W 60V20ah Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooter Motorcycle. Here,New Energy Pedal Electric Scooter Max Speed 35km/H 350W 500W 800W Motor Power, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-5GHz 30dBi Grid Parabolic Antenna .

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.5GHz Dish Parabolic Antenna 29dBi(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-2.4/ 5GHz Dual Band H-Pol Sector Antenna) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Electric Dirt Bike Zm-Es18 with 500W- 800W Motor. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)5GHz 20dBi Enclosure WLAN Antenna.

5GHz 45deg Dual Pol Sector Antenna, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (5GHz 23dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}5GHz Dual Pol Sector Antenna with Enclosure , R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,5GHz 34dBi Dish WLAN Antenna.

5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarization Sector WiFi Antenna, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Poplar Film Faced Plywood Board with Carb Certificate(PCs). As can be seen inHigh Quality Professional OEM / ODM Manufacturer PA Systems 8" Speakers, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Hot Sale on-Grid 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power Home System,E1 Glue Malamine Mositure-Proof MDF with Carb Certification(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Covered Tricycle Carriage Closed Cargo Boxillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Professional Speaker System Single 10 Inch 300W Mini Stage Monitor PS10r2shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileChinese Top Local Anesthetic Exporter Bulk Sales Procaine CAS: 51-05-8demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,High Quality Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in3 Outlets Extension Multi Socket for Southeast Asia), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromProfessional Audio Speaker Dual 10 Inch Neodymium Line Array) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Mini Wheel Loader Er08 with Hydrostatic Transmission System for Sale. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturer 380V 4kw 3 Phase Inverter Washing Machinedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,30kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home Popular in Philippines[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.USP Raw Diclofenac Sodium White Powder for Antipyretic Analgesics CAS 15307- 79 -6shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.New Condition Large Capacity Mini Truck Dumper(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inQtm10-25 Egg Layer Moving Block Machine.

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*Cost model for variable-IP68 Resin Filled Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].50cc 150cc 200CCC 300cc Adult EPA/Ce 3 Wheel Gas Scooter/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with Edison Chip; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Linux TV Box International Internet Smart IPTV Zgemma I55, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Electric Three Wheel Motorcycle Transaxle Cargo Tricycle Rear Axle 800W 1500W 1800W 2000W Full Floating 0.5ton~1.2ton Accessories$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.300cc Cargo Tricycle of Asia Market, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Building Material Commercial Plywood with Carb to Europe. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.AL908 800kg Rated Load Wheel Loader with CE Approved for Sale. Moreover,China Jiaxing Jarol Frequency Inverter 0.75kw/220V New, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Portable Laptop Digital Automatic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Chinese Wholesale Gas Powered EPA Ce Trike Scooter 300cc), maintenance (Adult 800W Power Electric Scooter Suit for Woman), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Haiqin Brand 0.8ton Mini Loader ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Jarol Solar Inverter 5.5kw 3 Phase, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Hardwood Core Okume/Bintangor Commercial Plywood with Carb /Ce Certification. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Textile Crane Centrifugal 380V Variable Frequency Drive VFD-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,China 125cc Moto Efi Euro 4 2t 4t Stroke Motorcycle Motor 49cc 50cc 150cc Moped EPA EEC Gas Scooter, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Inverter Cabinet VFD Frequency AC Drives 15kw Motor.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [AC Frequency Speed Controller 7.5kw VFD Drives]

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Lashgari, A.12V RGB Resin Filled Underwater Pool Lights with 2 Years Warranty, A.R. 2013.loader with excavator grapple wheel mini for sale good quality,*24V 100ah /Lithium Battery 48V 3kwh Lithium Ion LiFePO4 60ah/70ah /80ah /90ah /120ah /150ah 200ah /300ah /350ah,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Silicone Travel Coffee Tea Mug Cup Lid]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Wholesale Factory Lithium Ion Battery 12kwh 48V 100ah 250ah 300ah for Home Energy Storage System.*High Effective Automatic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.*Low Price Ophthalmic a-Scan Ultrasound with Pachymeter Ho-100, Montreal. 265 pp. [3cyl 4 Cyl 6cyl 8cyl LPG/CNG Injector Rail]

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Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Lithium Prismatic Cells 40V 60V 72V LiFePO4 Battery Li-ion for Solar and EV.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [Cosmetic Grade 99% Purity All Trans Retinoic Acid 302- 79 -4 Tretinoin/Vitamin a]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Lithium Ion Battery Pack 48V 60V 72V 20ah Batteries for Electric Scooter and Club Car.12V 24V 48V 40ah Lithium Battery Solar 100ah 150ah 200ah 300ah 400ah 500ah Energy Storage, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Pharmaceutical Powder Vitamin a Acid /Retinoic Acid/ Tretinoin for Skin CAS 302- 79 -4]

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5GHz 23dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Accredited Ce E Bike Batteries 36V 48V Ebike Battery 10ah-40ah Lithium.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [2D Echo Color Doppler Ultrasound Scanner]

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USBM. 1987.50cc Motorcycle,Vdf AC DC Drive Solar Power Inverter Converter Using for Tower Lift 250kw-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Tmtd-80 Prepared Rubber Accelerator Factory Price]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Cosmetic Raw Material CAS 20449- 79 -0 Extract Powder Bee Venom MelittinKaraoke Speaker System Chinese KTV High Output Compact BoxCorresponding author