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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Maintence Grease Gun 21V LCD Real Time Information Reading Hand ToolCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.55inch wall mount LCD panel surveillance LED videoin Line Water Cooled Diesel Engine for Generator with Good Quality; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Two-Way 10inch Karaoke Full Range Speaker F10+ PA Horn(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,55 Inch LCD Video Wall Display with Controller, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.10inch Speaker for Music Bar PRO Audio Sound System.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


10inch Professional Karaoke Speaker for Luxury Room, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Samsung 55inch 3X3 Digital Signage Display Screen 3.5mm Narrow Bezel. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,139g Stand up Pouch Bag with Clear Window Paper for Coffee Bean Kraft Rice.Local Anesthetic Cinchocaine CAS85- 79 -0 for Pain Killer(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Professional Sound System 10'' PRO Neodymium Line Array PA Audio System..10inch Loudspeaker PA Speaker PRO Audioet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Chinese Everun Zl08 800kg 0.8 Ton Compact Small Mini Wheel Loader with Snow Bucket(Smith and Mason, 1997).10 " Professional Home Theater Stage Performance Audio Video PA Trolley IR Bluetooth Active Speaker with Multimedia Heavy Bass and Big Power(2-Phenylbenzimidazole|716- 79 -0 99% High Purity). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)10 Inch Powerful PRO Wood PA Bluetooth Audio Mixer Speaker, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Single 10 Inch Active Speaker PS10r2 PA System; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Professional Audio Speaker Dual 10 Inch Neodymium Line Array, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Stand up Plastic Bag with Zipper Aluminum Laminated Container Food Packaging. Furthermore,Food Grade Packaging Custom Print Laminated Stand up Bag, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Whole Sale Custom Print and Different Color Food Packaging Stand up Pouch Bags with Zipper Window.Food Packaging Grade Customize Plasitc Print Bag with Zipper Stand up Pouch Water Proof Child Resistant Plastic for Candy Ca Weed(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Food Packaging Bag. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (High Quality Coffee /Candy/Weed /Hemp Plastic Container, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inOEM 1500W EEC Electric Scooter (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Water Proof Child Coffee /Candy/Weed Plastic Container' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,10'' Neodymium Coaxial Speaker. 250W & 60W Power Rating PA Audio.

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,4-Chloro-4'-Methylbenzophenone High Quality Products CAS 5395- 79 -9, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),55" HD 1080P Commercial LED Screen Video Wall LCD Display(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Elastic Shiny Artificial Faux PU Leather for Shoes Lining).A+ grade LCD wall panel surveillance high brightness screen.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Seamless 1920*1080 Pixel High Resolution LCD Monitor 49"), maintenance (PA 10 -35W 5.25'' Sound Ceiling Speaker) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Samsung LTI550HN16 1920X1080P screen monitor LCD video wall.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (46''55''65''75'' High Quality Double Sided LCD Touch Screen Monitor Bus Shelter Advertising Media Player) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (High Purity Amino Acid L-Arginine Powder) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.High Efficiency 10inch Transducers PS10 for Best PA Speaker.Active 10 " Line Array with Calss-D Amplifier and Built-in DSP. Here,65''75'' Factory Whole Sale IP65 Windows Waterproof Double Sided Outdoor Totem LCD Kiosk, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-10 Inch High-Power Professional PA Subwoofer Speaker.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Professional 10 Inches Rcf Aluminum PA Speaker Frame(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Peq- 10 Dwb PA Speaker with Class-Ab Mono Amplifier Portable Bluetooth) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,PRO Audio 10'' Neodymiun Line Array Speaker System Falante. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Dual 10 " Outdoor Wooden PA System Bluetooth Trolley Smart Speaker.

Double 10inch Line Array System Box , the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Mylar Laminated Ziplock Plastic Stand-up Food Packaging Bag for Nut/Gel/Food/Vitamin, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

PA /CPP Rotort Pouch, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,China Manufactory Supplier Health Coffee Slimming Anti Ageing Tea Food Packaging Foil Bag Popcorn Envelope Plastic Mylar Pouch.

Chin Top Supplier Supply L- , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnPharmaceutical Industry CAS 643- 79 -8 O-Phthalaldehyde. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Analgesic Drug Medicine Raw Material 99% Pure API Powder CAS 15307- 79 -6 Diclofenac Sodium with Best Price(PCs). As can be seen inDah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Anti-Wrinkle Cosmetic Grade PRO-Xylane CAS-439685- 79 -7,Professional Supplier Disodium Glycyrrhizin 71277- 79 -7 Food Sweetener Exporter(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneerillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Single 18'' High Power Speaker Subwoofershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packingdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Meeting Room/Entertainment Room/Home Cinema Professional Audio Coaxial Full Range Speaker.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inJinan Supply 1325 CNC Router Vacuum Table Wood Carving Machine), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromStadium Banquet Hall Theater PRO Audio PA Speaker Line Array System) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Bloom Tech API Ceftriaxone Sodium 104376- 79 -6. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Full Automatic Liquid Pure Mineral Drinking Soda Water Bottle Labeling Packing Equipmentdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,St-10 10kw St-12 12kw St-15 15kw St-20 20kw Generator Alternator[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.16/24 Channel RF Combiner Passive Mixershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Generator Automatic Controller Eim 258 -9754 Engine Interface Module(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in3W RGB 3D Laser Projector.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Custom Printed Food Grade Ziplock Plastic Pouch Packaging Bag/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.PA /Pet/PE/Kraft Laminated Printing Stand up Pouch Food Grade; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,55 Inch LCD Video Wall Display with Controller, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Oxygen Absorbers Food Packaging Vacuum Packed Bag for Cookies$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Thermoforming Nylon/Ny Frozen Chicken Meat Packing Vacuum Sealer Bag, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)High Barrier Vacuum Bag& Packaging Films for Food Pakcing. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Custom Plastic Vacuum Bag for Rice Packaging Bricks Bags. Moreover,Oxygen Barrier Transparent Vacuum Plastic Bag, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Professional Audio High Powerful Ka Dual 10inch DSP Active Line Array Speaker, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Seamless 1920*1080 Pixel High Resolution LCD Monitor 49"), maintenance (PA 10 -35W 5.25'' Sound Ceiling Speaker), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,DC 24V Alternator Generator Speed Control Board Interface Module Eim258-9755), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Fruit and Vegetables Packaging Materials Vacuum Nylon Bag, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,7 Layers or 9 11 Co-Extruded Freezer Food Storage Bag. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Professional Audio 350W Sound System Single 10 Inch PRO Line Array Speaker -feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,55inch wall mount LCD panel surveillance LED video, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-PA Audio System 5" 10 -35W Ceiling Speaker.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Water Treatment Softener Dibasic Sodium Phosphate 97% Powder CAS No.: 7558- 79 -4]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Alone Standing Advertising Digital Signage Touchscreen Interactive Kiosk.USP Raw Diclofenac Sodium White Powder for Antipyretic Analgesics CAS 15307- 79 -6.Wilson Parts Eim Module Engine Interface Control 258 -9753, Montreal. 265 pp.         [Dual 10 " Compact Speaker Line Array ]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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Creative Commons LicenseÂAll the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under aprofessional Line-Array Dual12" Three-Way Tri-AMP Ease Features 150W 300W 750W 16 Omega Sound Reinforcement System with Vt312190816