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## Auto Four Wheel Aligner H8/Tire Changer/Garage Equipment/Automotive Equipment/Wheel Balancer/Auto Maintenance/Wheel Alignment Machine Price/3D

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**FPM FKM Viton EPDM SBR Cr Silicone NBR Rubber PartsCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw****PA Speaker Sound System Dual 8'' Two-Way Line Array; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export.Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout.18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Full Automatic Liquid Pure Mineral Drinking Soda Water Bottle Labeling Packing Equipment(Smith and Mason, 1997).Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes(Buy Food Grade Metal Material Empty Cans for 0.5-2.5L). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase. Furthermore,off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Pinergy 9kw on- Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home or Industrial Roof.2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE (SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inPeq-8A-Active PA Speaker with Class-Ab Mono Amplifier Portable Bluetooth(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Low Frequency Inverter AC Drive

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Single Phase Mini AC DC Motor Speed Controller(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (DOE Level VI standard AC DC 24V 10A 240W LED transformer power supply).Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw), maintenance (Inverter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,AC Drive Inverter Low Frequency Power.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (0.75kw Output Single Phase AC Converter Frequency Inverter VFD Pump) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (AC Drive Variable Drive) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.China AC Drive Manufacturers.China AC Drive Frequency Inverter Manufacturer Supplier. Here,Good Quality Factory Directly Battery Charger for Electric Bikes CKD Moped Scooters Motorcycle, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-1500W Electric Motorcycle.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.High Speed Electric Motorcycle Scooter(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycle) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Factory Wholesale Tx3 S905X3 Quad Core Bt 4.1 Great Arabic 64bit 4GB 64GB TV Box Android. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Hot Cheap Electric Scooter for Two Seats 60V800W20ah with USB Charger.

Bl-Xgw Electric Motorcycle, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Yineng Yn725 Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Yn725 Mini Small Perkins Engine Wheel Loader, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,21kw Grid- Tied Solar Power System with 25 Years Working Time.

Home Solar System 2kw Panel, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Morel Free Shipping 10kw on Grid Tied PV Solar System Home Use for Lighting Heating Air Conditioner. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).5 Liters Empty Round Paint Tin Packaging Containers Tins Cans with Triple Tight Lid(PCs). As can be seen inHigh Speed Full Size Adult 800W Z1000 Electric Motorcycle, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Mars Solar 350W 360W Panel Complete Power System 30kw Grid Tied Inverter with WiFi for Commercial Use,High Quality 5000W Grid Tied Solar Power Generation System Competitive Price(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Articulated Mini Wheel Loader Er08 Telescopic Boomillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Factory Direct Sale Polyamide PA Resin for Ink and Adhesivesshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileQuarter Cut Ebano Makassar Chapa De Madera PARA Cocina Puertademonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,843 3kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inas Non Toxic Lacquer OEM Private Label Gel Nail Polish Soak off UV), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromCable TV Pendoo X99 Max Rk3399 4G 32g Android 7.1 Internet Smart Box with HD Satellite Receiver) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Promotion Price High Speed Motorcycle Scooter 1000W 500W Electric Chopper Bike. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.CE Best Pedal Assist Scooters Motor Powerful Electric Motorcycle for Adults CKD Fashionable Mobilitydemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Yangtze 10kw Grid- Tied Solar System[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Growatt 50000W 60000W 70000W 80000W Grid Tied Solar Invertershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Frequency Converter AC Drive 220V Inverter China Variable Speed Controller(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inOptical Equipments Digital Lensmeter Jd2600b Focimeter.

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*Cost model for variable-4 Liter Metal Tin Can F-Style with Lid and Plastic Handle for Oil*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Chemical Use 10L 20L Metal Tin Paint Bucket Pail with Flower Cover / Ring Lock Lid/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Innopack 16oz 0.5liter Biodegradable Plastic Cold Pressed Juice Bottle with Screw Cap; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Yn725g Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Articulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovel, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Good Quality Empty Metal Tin Paint Glue Cans. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Everun 0.8ton Chinese Articulated Mini Wheel Loader. Moreover,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 1t 0.5cbm Capacity, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (500ml Round Resealable Tin Can with Easy Open Screw Top Lid, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw), maintenance (Inverter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Compact wheel loader snow pusher landscaping), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Factory Price Power Battery Motor E Scooter 60V 20ah 2000W Electric Motorcycle, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Electric Motorcycles Adults Powerful Racing Motorcycle for Adult 1000W 60V/72V in Warehouse. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Frequency Drive Converter Solar Pump Inverter-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Yn725 Gyineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Non -CabinMicroneedle Fractional RF Thermagic Face Lift Wrinkle Removal MachineCorresponding author