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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**250cc Oil Cooling Dirt Bike with EPACost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Tricycle with Wagon 3 Wheel Motorcycle Box****Frequency Power Supply China Variable Speed Drive Voltage Converter AC Motor; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.High Quality Hot Sale PC Epoxy Resin Filled 12V AC 18W RGB Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chips(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Manufacturer Promotional Square Metal Tin Can for Tea Coffee Packing, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Motor Auto Hydraulic Open Three Wheel Motorcycle for Sale.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Hot PC Resin Filled 18W AC RGB Wall Mounted LED Underwater Light with Two Years Warranty, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,20watt Mopa Laser Marking Machine for Anodized Aluminum Black. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Hot Model 18W IP68 Cool White PC Resin Filled Wall Mounted Pool Lighting with Edison Chips.No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

2021 New E Bike Best Mini Electric for Adults.Power Saver Device *et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Pneumtic Forklift Tyre/Industrial Tyre/NHS Tyre (Smith and Mason, 1997).1liter Empty Paint Tin Can with Lids Factory(Yog Motorcycle Spare Parts Side Mirror Rearview Mirrors Scooter Gy6 off Road for Honda Xy Fz16 YAMAHA Bajaj Tvs Star Apache 180). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).60V800W Electric Scooter with Highlight Rear Box; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Empty Canister White Metal Round Packaging Cans Box Tea Tins, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.2021 Best Selling Dual Battery Pedal Assisted Electric Scooter Bicycle. Furthermore,No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Edison Chip, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Hot Selling X96 Mini Amlogic S905W 1GB 8GB TV Box Android 7.0 4K Full HD Quad Core Smart for Internet.Vintage Chinese Factory Customizable Classical Retro Style Cruiser Ebike Moped(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Gogo Electric Moped Scooter Opg-Em022 Motor Power 800W 60V20ah Chaowei Tianneng Battery. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (20'' 36V 500W Folding Electric Bike 35km/H with 12ah Lithium Battery, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inPowered Line Array Active Stage Speaker(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Electricity Power Saver for Industry ' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Covered Tricycle Passenger Enclosed Cabin 3 Wheel Motorcycle

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Engine 150cc China 3 Wheel Motor Tricycle Chinese Commercial, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High Quality Cheap Classic Light Mini Reverse Three Wheel Motorcycle (CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Yishan 160HP swamp hydraulic dozer TSY160G with 560/610mm track shoes).Mountain Using Motorcycle with Strong Steel Tube Frame.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (10W 20W 30W portable Fiber Laser Marking Machine), maintenance (CATV 860MHz One Way Amplifier) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,CATV Optical Receiver Module Bgo887bo Excellent Flatness 40 to 860 MHz.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (CATV Amplifier Module Bgy887 24V 22.6db Excellent Return Loss Properties) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (High Efficiency SIM Card Fiber Laser Marking Machine) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.2021 New Machine Grade CO2 Laser Marking with a Discount.20W Fiber Laser Color Marking Machine for Colorful on Stainless Steel. Here,Mopa Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Black Printing, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-20W Table Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal Stainless Steel.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Portable Handheld Metal Plastic DOT Peen Marking Machine(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-5150-5850MHz Sector Panel Antenna with Gain 13dBi) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Dirt Bike for Sport Using with Large Power Engine. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Electricity Saver Device .

3 Phase 50 - 60Hz Intelligent Power Saver, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (High Efficient Industrial Electric Motor Power Saver, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}EEC 125/300cc Euro 5V Max Scooter-Alex One, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Electricity Power Reducer .

Nylon OTR Bias Tyre/Tire Manufacture E3/L3 15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Electrical Saver Box . MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Sector Panel Antenna (PCs). As can be seen inIntelligent Power Saver for Industry Use, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 OTR Tire*

Growatt 2kw on Grid Inverter 2000W Tied for Solar Power System Home,Motorbike for 320cc with Police Cruiser Using Dry Weight 180kg(CSFM) is presented here as an example.20W/30W/50W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal/Plastic and All The Metalsillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Made in Chinashows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileCold&Heat Seal Plastic Film Roll Chocolate Bar Food Cookies Packaging Bag Frosted Zipper Container Made Craft Drawstring Low MOQ Printingdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Heavy Duty Truck Tire 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25.

Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inChina Custom Shining Fancy Raw Metallic Agarbatti Sandalwood Incense Stick), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from1L and 5L Can for Antifreezing Liquid) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Gas Powered Adult Tricycle Motor Farm. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.98% Uvarigranol B\C\D\E Standard Reference Materials Plant Extractsdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Motorcar for Both Civilc and Police Using with 320cc Displacement[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Motorcycle Spare Part Oil Switch for Gy6 150shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Police Using of Motorcycle for Cruiser with Displacement 320cc(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in925 Sterling Silver European Beads Jewelry Bracelet.

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*Cost model for variable-High Quality Cylindrical Li-ion 12V 40ah 80ah Rechargeable Lithium Battery Pack for Portable Device*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].7kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.5.8GHz WLAN/WiFi 0.9m Dual-Polarized Parabolic Antenna 32dBi Gain; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Manufacturer Promotional Square Metal Tin Can for Tea Coffee Packing, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

45cm Offset Satellite TV Antenna with 200 Hour UV Test. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.5.8g Omni Antenna/Dual Frequency Antenna 2.4G 5.8g/2400-2500MHz Omi, indicated inGlobalipl Body Face Slimming Fine Jaw Line 20MHz Device, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

45cm Offset Satellite Dish TV Antennas$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)2.4-2.5GHz/5-5.8GHz Dual Frequency WiFi Antenna Internet for Things. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.E3/L3 17.5-25 20.5-25 1800-25 Durable Tyres for Scrapers. Moreover,C Band Satellite TV Antenna 150cm, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Eougem Original Cheap Radlader 0.8ton with Standard Bucket Made in China, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (10W 20W 30W portable Fiber Laser Marking Machine), maintenance (CATV 860MHz One Way Amplifier), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Dsola ODM/OEM Design High Efficient Mc4 Connector 3 in 1), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Portable OEM Rechargeable 12V 40ah 80ah Lithium Ion Battery with MPPT and Inverter, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Mc4t-Branch Connector for Parallel Solar Panel Pair Male and Female. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.4000W/5000W off Grid Tied Solar Power System-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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