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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


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S. Arfania; A.R.Medical Machine / Multipolar RF Facial BeautyFactory Direct Semi-Synthetic Glycopeptide Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Raw Material Dalbavancin ; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Made in China High Performance Tubeless Fat Motorcycle Tire 180/55- 17(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Good Packed Bottle PE Film Shrink Wrapping Machine China, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.ISO9001 Certified Factory Price China Motorcycle Tires 2.75- 17.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


25kw High Frequency Induction Heater for Bolts&Rivet, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Fractional RF Vacuum Slimming Machine for Lose Weight. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Online Flying Laser Marking Machine for Operation Line.Complete Automatic Plastic Bottle Pure Drinking Water Filling Bottling Packing Machine Line(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Portable 20Hz RF Face Lift Machine.ISO9001 Motorcycle Spare Part Tubeless Motorcross Tire Size 100/90- 17et al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Kas 12 Inch Line Array Audio Professional DJ Speakers 18 Subwoofer(Smith and Mason, 1997).DOT Certified off Road Chinese Motorcycle Tire 3.00- 17(49 Inch Portable Alone Standing LED LCD Poster Digital Menu Board). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Linear Type Thermal Film Packing Machine / Equipment, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Good Solutions 3kw Solar Home Energy off Grid System; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Jalyn Motorcycle Spare Parts Speedometer Assy Fits for Gy6 /Hunter, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.25kw High Frequency Induction Heat Soldering Machine. Furthermore,Super Bright Outdoor 300W 400W 500W 600W 800W 1000W LED Flood Light, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-10pack/M Automatic PE Film Combine Heat Shrink Wrapping Bottle Packing Wrapper Machine.Beverage Water Packing Equipment (SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Automatic Shrink Wrapping Machine 0-20package/Min. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Automatic Bottle PE Film Shrink Wrapping Packing Machine , 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in1L Custom Round Small Metal Empty Tin Cans with Lids(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Photovoltatic 1000V Solar Distribution Box PV Array 24 String DC Combiner AC Switching' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Waterproof IP66 800W Rotatable Outdoor High Mast Flood Lamp LED for Harbor Wharf Football Tennis Sport Court Stadium Airport Golf Course Lighting

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Waterproof IP66 Adjustable High Power LED Stadium Lamp 100W 200W 300W 400W 600W 800W 1000W 1200W 1500W Flood Light, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),High Quality 1L 32oz Amber Glass Bottle in Stock(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (PVC Luxury Vinyl Floor Covering for Domestic Usage).Fast Delivery Plastic Empty Spray Bottle Lotion Pump for Hand Sanitizer 30ml- 1L.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (1L Stainless Steel 304 Bottle with Clamp and Silicone Gasket), maintenance (Automatic Pure/Mineral Bottle Water Packing Machine ) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,1000ml 71g 1L HDPE Plastic Bottle for Chemical Powders Liquids.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (300/650ml/ 1L Plastic Shampoo Cosmetic Pump Bottle) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (250ml 300ml 500ml 1L Clear Glass Juice Bottle Milk) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.20W 50W Portable Jpt/Ipg Laser Marking Machine in Germany.1L /1.5L Glass Juice Bottle/Beverage Bottle. Here,Hot Wholesale 1L /2L/3L Laundry Liquid Detergent Bottle, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Factory Outlet Dog Tag Laser Marking Machine for Metal 50W.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.1500cc Watercraft with 3seat(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Portable-Rorary Type DOT Peen Marking Machine for Metal) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Engine Timing Kits for Cadillac Allante 4.6L V8 281 Cid 1993. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Underwater Light.

WiFi Control Warm White 12V RGB Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (20W/30W/50W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal/Plastic and All The Metals, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Automatic Red Point Laser Marking Machine for Metal Aluminum Plastic, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,8mm Thickness 316ss IP68 RGB DC12V 18W External Control Mode LED Swimming Pool Light.

IP68 8W-35W Surface Mounted Green Color LED Underwater Swimming Light, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnIP68 8W-35W Surface Mounted Blue Color LED Underwater Swimming Light. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).150ah 3kwh Power Supply Deep Cycle Rechargeable Solar Battery(PCs). As can be seen inAC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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10W Tabletop Series Fiber Laser Marking Machine,Manufacturer 3kwh Long Life Solar Home System with LiFePO4 Battery(CSFM) is presented here as an example.SMD3014/2835 AC/DC Underwater LED Swimming Pool Lightillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Online Flying Laser Marking Machine for Operation Lineshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileMade in China Strong Compact Mini Front Loader demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Shrink Wrapping Machine for Water Packing .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inNew single-use diapers for adults/children the African market), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromTopstar Looking for Spain After Sales Service Office to Cooperate Our Plastic Injection Molding Machine and Auxiliary Equipment) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.3kwh Rechargeable Battery Solar Energy Power System. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.800W Aluminium Alloy Wheel Hubs Sport Electric Motorcycledemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,55% Rubber Content Tyre High Performance Diagonal Motorcycle Tires 200/55- 17[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Gt1544s 454083-0001 1002829 Garrett Engine Turbo for Vw Passatshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.DOT Certified Natural Rubber Motorcycle Tires 3.00- 17 with Golden Quality(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inBig Capacity Business Laptop Backpack.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Professional Factory Motorcycle Tyre and Motorbike /min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.High Quality Motorcycle Parts Tyre ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Good Packed Bottle PE Film Shrink Wrapping Machine China, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Plastic Bottles Semi Automatic Film Shrink Wrapping Machine / Packing. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.High Speed Bottles Shrink Wrapping Machine/Group Packing Machine, indicated inWheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Can Beer Use Automatic PE Film Heat Shrink Wrapping Group Packaging Machine for Half Paper Box Juice Production Line$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.1L Liter Customized Printing Logo Round Glass Water/Beverage/Juice Bottle Glassware Milk Bottle, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Ce ISO SGS Certification Wd Series Full Automatic Linear Type PE Plastic Film Stretch Shrink Wrapping Machine Packaging. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.3kwh 150ah Solar Home System Li-ion Battery Factory. Moreover,Excellent Motorcycle Cylinder for Gy6 -100 , and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (3kwh Power Supply Solar Energy Battery Pack, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (1L Stainless Steel 304 Bottle with Clamp and Silicone Gasket), maintenance (Automatic Pure/Mineral Bottle Water Packing Machine ), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,25kw Electromagnetic Induction Heater for Tools Welding), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Adjustable IP65 Lumileds SMD5050 Meanwell 800W LED Flood Light, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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