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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



PA6T) Ultramid Advanced T1000HG9 HR/T1000HG10/T1000HG12 LS/T1000WG10 LFX Uncolored BlackCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Top Selling Polyurethane Adhesive ResinSingle 10 Inch 2 Way Mini Portable Line Array Speaker; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Jwell PLA Pet Sheet Cup Packing Making Extrusion Line Machine(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,PA Resin for Gravure Plastic and Paper Printing Ink, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Jwell-PLA Pet Sheet Recycling Cup Packing Making Extrusion Machine.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Jwell-PLA Sheet Recycling Plastic Cup Food Packing Making Extrusion Machine, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Good Performance Polyurethane PU Resin for Gravure Printing Ink. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Jwell HDPE Waterproof Membrance Roll Extrusion Line.Silo Top Pulse Jet Dust Collectors Collector Hopper for Cement(Khalesiet al.,2015).

CAS No.: 63428-84-2 Polyamide PA Resin for Untreated Film.Dust Collector Woodworking Machinery Supplieret al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans(Smith and Mason, 1997).Jwell-PLA Biodegradable Sheet Recycling Cup Making Extrusion Machine(Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Excellent Gel Resistance Ability Polyamide Resin, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Jwell PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Equipment; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,High Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weigher with Manual Lifter, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.High Toughness and Tensile Strength Resin 610. Furthermore,Toughness High Engineering Plastics 610 for Auto Parts, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Three Heads Woodworking Machine Atc CNC Router.High Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weigher with Hand Manual Jack(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Line. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Automatic Tool Changing CNC Router with 9kw Hsd Spindle. Wood Door Carving Atc, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inHigh Quality Free Sample Ortho Phthalaldehyde 643- 79 -8 with Fast Delivery(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Pneumatic Three Four Spindles Multi-Heads CNC Router Woodworking Machine' names:

Disc Atc Automatic Tools Changer Wood CNC Router Woodworking Machine: based on 36-foot,Tank Dust Removing Machine with Filter Cartridge,Quadrant Stainless Steel Shower Room with 8mm Tempered Glass,HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Machinery, and level control

Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Factory Price 1325 Atc CNC Router Automatic Tool Change Machinery

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion Equipment, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),45cm High Tray Toughened Glass Curved Quadrant Shower Cabin(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Wheel Aligner /Wheel Alignment/3D /3D Alignment/Car /Car Alignment).Bathroom 8mm Glass Full Arc Quadrant Enclosed Shower Door.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Plastic Pipe Production Extrusion Line), maintenance (Wholesale Plastic PVC Drainage Sewer Water Supply Electrical Conduit Tube Pipe Production Extrusion Line) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,New Quadrant Shower Enclosure with One Pivot Door.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Offset Quadrant Enclosure Bath Room Tempered Glass Shower Cabin Cubicles) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (China Direct Supply CAS No.: 63428-84-2 Polyamide Resin for Untreated Film) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Quadrant Framed Grey Glass Shower Enclosure Sliding Door Simple Room.HDPE PE PPR Pipe Making Machine. Here,NBR Nitril 80 Duro Rubber X Ring /Quad, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-EPDM 50 Duro As568 Rubber O Ring.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Cheap Price Nice Mini Seal Viton/FKM X Rings(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Rectangle Sliding Strip Glass Door Quadrant Bathroom ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Shurong Made Insecticide Deltamethrin 2.5% Ec CAS No. 52918-63-5. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Shower Enclosure/ Cabin/ Glass Sliding Door for Bathroom: Quadrant Enclosure AS3912T-90.

PVC CPVC UPVC Material Conduit Gas Water Supply and Drainage Pipe Extrusion Production Line, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Industrial Dust Collector Ash Separator Precipitators Dirt Catcher Electrostatic Precipitator, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Wear-Resistant PU O Ring, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Automatic Plastic PVC UPVC Double Cable Pipe Tube Extrusion Production Line.

Acrylic Film Quadrant Frosted Glass Shower Cubicle with Low Tray , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnPlastic PVC CPVC UPVC Sewage/ Pressure Pipe& Electrical Conduit Cable Pipe/Tube /Single Corrguated Pipe . MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Plastic HDPE Pipe Production Line(PCs). As can be seen inMy-A010b-N Medical Ultrasound Instruments Convex Handheld Wireless Probe, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Dust Collector for Granite Welding,Dust Collector Cages Surface Grinding Machine(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Water Treatment Disodium Phosphate illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warrantyshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileCe Approved Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Use Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scannerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Dust Collector Hammer Mill Shaker.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inZhida Textiles 3D Jacquard Velvet Home Upholstery Sofa Fabric), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromMetal Fiber Ring Color Laser Engraving Machine) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Low Water Absorption Polymer 610. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Solvent Violet G 49 for Plasticdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,High Impact Strength and Low Water Absorption Resin 610[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Radlader Zl08 Mini Wheel Loader for Agriculture Workshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.CAS No. 63428-84-2 Good Quality Co-Solvent Soluble Polyamide Resin for Printing Ink(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPromtional 10oz Inner Sparkle Mug.

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Cost model for variable-Plastic PE Pipe Production Line

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Non Standard Eco Friendly Rubber Seal O-Ring/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.High Quality Elasticity Competitve Nitrile X Ring; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,PA Resin for Gravure Plastic and Paper Printing Ink, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

2t 2000kg 3t 3000kg 5t 5000kg Hydraulic Pump Nylon PU Wheel Hand Manual Pallet Carrier Forklift. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.King Quenson Customized Label Deltamethrin 2.5 Ec China Supplier, indicated inDual 12 Inch Powered Line Array Active Sound System W-210bp, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Insecticide Deltamethrin powder 5% WP 2.5% EC$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Pesticide Deltamethrin 98% TC, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)King Quenson Best Selling Deltamethrin 2.5% Wp Insecticide Manufacturer. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Pest control Flies Cockroaches Mosquitos spray Deltamethrin 2.5%SC. Moreover,Shower Enclosure/ Cabin/ Glass Sliding Door for Bathroom: Quadrant Cabin AS-2800, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Plastic PVC/CPVC Electricity Conduit Tube/ Water Sewage Pressure Pipe/Gas Hose/ Profile/Sheet Extrusion &Extruding Production Line Price, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Plastic Pipe Production Extrusion Line), maintenance (Wholesale Plastic PVC Drainage Sewer Water Supply Electrical Conduit Tube Pipe Production Extrusion Line), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,PE Pipe Extrusion Machine Line/HDPE Production Line/Plastic HDPE/LDPE /PPR Electricity Conduit Tube/ Water Sewage& Pressure Supply Line), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Water/Gas-Supply PP PE HDPE Plastic Pipe/Tube Extrusion Making Machine, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Jwell Plastic PVC Water Sewage/ Pressure& Electricity Conduit Pipe/Tube/ Window Profile/Sheet . Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Plastic PE PP HDPE PPR Pipe Making Machine Extrusion Production Line-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.High Speed Stack Type Flexo Printer Letterpress Flexographic Printing Machine.Small Cheap Quadrant Simple Fiberglass Hinge Shower Enclosure .Hot Sale Popular Use Insecticide Deltamethrin 2.5 Sc for Crop Health, Montreal. 319 pp.         [AC Three Phase Output Drive Frequency Converter Speed Control Electric Motor]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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