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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Lebekan 300W 400W 500W 600W 800W Outdoor Light Building Landscape Lighting Wall Washer FloodlightCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.China Best Pest Control Insecticide Deltamethrin 5% Ec Supplier NeocidolFrequnce Converter AC Drive 380V 11kw; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Benzene Soluble Polyamide Resin for Flexo Printing Ink(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Premium quality and very competitive price for Permethrin 25% EC, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.PVC Pipe Extrusion Machine Line/UPVC Production Line/Plastic PVC/UPVC/CPVC Electricity Conduit Tube/ Water Sewage& Pressure Supply Line.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


High Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weighing Scale with Manual Hand Telehandler, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Permethrin 25% EC Pesticide & Insecticides. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,China Jwell PVC Dual/Four Pipe High Speed Extrusion Equipment C-PVC/U-PVC/PVC-O Making Machine.HD250-5/7 Arm Boom Bucket Cylinder Seal Cyl for Kato(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Ergonomic Design AC 3000kg Trolley Hydraulic Hand Pallet Truck.PVC Garden Pipe Making Machine Costet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Spiral Reversible Replacement Solid Tungsten Carbide Round or Square Indexable Woodturning Cutters Inserts for Wood Turning(Smith and Mason, 1997).CAS No.: 63428-84-2 Polyamide PA Resin for Untreated Film Sunmide(PA Speaker Parts ). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)PU Wheel 2000kg Hand Pallet Truck with Digital Weighing Scale, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Excellent Quality CAS No.: 63428-84-2 Polyamide PA Resin for Untreated Film Sunmide; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,PVC Pipe Making Machine Alibaba, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.3ton Hydraulic Hand Pallet Truck Trolley Special. Furthermore,2000kg Mini Cheap Price Nylon Wheel Hand Hydraulic Pallet Truck, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Direct Sale Polyamide PA Resin for Ink.CAS No. 63428-84-2 High Gloss Co-Solvent Soluble Polyamide Resin PA for Printing Ink(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Plastic PVC|PE|PP|PPR|Agriculture Water|Gas|Irrigation Pipe|Faux Marble Sheet|Foam Board Floor|Roofing Tile|Extruder|Extrusion Making Machine Production Line. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Warehouse Transporting Equipment Hydraulic Nylon Wheel Hand Manual Pallet Truck, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inPharmaceutical Intermediate High Purity Peptides CAS 113- 79 -1 Argpressin Acetate Argipressin(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Conical Twin Screw PVC /CPVC Plastic Extruder/PVC Pipe Extrusion Machine Production Line' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Excavator Cylinder Seal for E307b Boom Cyl Repair Parts

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Arm Cyl Oil Seal Kits for Sumitomo, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Komatsu PC270-7 Arm Cyl Ket(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (100-2000mm Sewer Inspection Camera Pipe Periscope Made in China).Deltamethrin 2.5% EC Pesticide & Insecticides.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Manufacture! OEM Komatsu PC50uu-2 Bucket Cyl Seal Ket), maintenance (16 Years Agrochemical Manufacturer Pest Control Deltamethrin Low Price) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Deltamethrin 98% Tc Insecticide 2.5 Sc Wholesale 2021.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Top Quality Insecticide Classification Deltamethrin 98%TC) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Highly Effective Deltamethrin ) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Chrome Quadrant Shower Enclosure with Plastic Double Roller.Frame Quadrant Glass Curved Shower Cubicle for Sale Price. Here,Quadrant Stainless Steel Corner Shower Enclosure for Hotel with Customized Size and Color, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Quadrant Framed Shower Enclosure/ Cabin / Cubicle .

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Imiprothrin 93%TC(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Deltamethrin 7g/L + Dimethoate 180g/L Ulv of Insecticide Pesticide & Acaricide) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Deltamethrin 2.5% Wp of Insecticide Pesticide. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Insecticide Deltamethrin 2.5% Ec.

PVC 16-32mm Four Pipes Extrusion Line, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (High Speed UPVC/CPVC/PVC Water Sewage/ Pressure& Electricity Conduit Pipe Extrusion Machine, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Komatsu Boom Cyl Ket for PC300-5, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,PPR Pipe/HDPE Pipe/PVC Pipe /UPVC Machine Manufacturer Factory.

Komatsu Boom Cyl Ket for PC400-6, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnKomatsu Bucket Cyl Ket for PC300-5. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Hyundai Excavator Hydraulic Cylinder Bucket Seal Kit for R210(PCs). As can be seen inLuneng Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braidedshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileAV input LCD wall panel 49inch surveillance monitorsdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,China Factory Supply Good Quality Polyamide Resin PA.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in7PCS Blue Cosmetics Brush Set Portable Makeup for Powder Eyeshadow Lipstick), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from4G Lte Cat7 Outdoor CPE 5GHz B46 5150-5925MHz) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Used for Brushing PA610 with High Tensile Strength. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Manufacture 20W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Engravingdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Polyamide Fabric PA[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350Wshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Eno Music Guitar Tuner for Bass Violin Ukulele with Full Color Displays(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCody Lundin New Design Hip Hop Muscle Fit Men's T-Shirt Men Sports Apparel Casual Quantity OEM.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].High Quality Nylon Plated Classical Guitar Accessory Strings/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Senior Electric Guitar ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Premium quality and very competitive price for Permethrin 25% EC, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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4 Stringed Wrapped Electric Bass Guitar Strings$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Lp Electric Guitar on-on-on Control Switch, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Ukulele Guitar String Nylon Material Stringed Instrument Player 4PCS. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Digital Tuner . Moreover,Metronome and Tuner, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Creative Caline Cp-09 Tuner Power Pedal Guitar, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Manufacture! OEM Komatsu PC50uu-2 Bucket Cyl Seal Ket), maintenance (16 Years Agrochemical Manufacturer Pest Control Deltamethrin Low Price), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Digital Tuner for Guitar ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Newest Hot Sell Guitar Machine Head Tuner, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Bluetooth Speaker WiFi RGB+WY LED Ceiling Lamp.60W LED High Power Bluetooth Speaker Ceiling Light,vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562.         [Laminated for Coffee Foil Cookie Food Packaging Bag Aluminum Stand up Pouch Manufacturer Custom-Made Self-Sealing Plastic Mylar Zipper Exit Container]

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INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with Edison Chip]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.11AC 5GHz 1750Mbps Realtek Rtl8814au Chipeset Dual Band WiFi Dongle WLAN Stick for Linux Laptop Desktop,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [Theater Professional Line Array Speaker]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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