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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



10inch Speaker for Music Bar PRO Audio Sound SystemCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Customized Modern Design Metal Oil Tin Can 1L Empty Storage ContainerAll-Weather Compact 2-Way Coaxial Loudspeaker with 15" Lf; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.E3/L3 Pattern Bias Loader Radical Pneumatic Solid Grader OTR Tyre (SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pneumtic Forklift Tyre/Industrial Tyre/NHS Tyre , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.1L Paint Tin Cans/Empty Food Grade Can with Lid.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 26.5-25 29.5-25 OTR Tire for Loaders, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,20.5-25/29.5-25/23.5-25/14.00-24/7.50-16 New E-3/L-3 Loader OTR Bias Tyre. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lights.China Electric Tricycle 350W 500W 800W for Adult(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Llantas High Quality L5 OTR Tyre 26.5-25.1L Empty Round Brake Fluid Can Boxeset al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 0.8ton mini wheel loader with small bucket for multifunctional use(Smith and Mason, 1997).Pneumatic Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Marking Coder(904L Uns N08904 SUS890L 1.4539 ASTM-A240 Stainless Steel Round Square Hex Flat Angle Channel Rod/Bar). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Motor King Rear Double Axle Tricycle for Heavy Loader, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Pneumatic Frame Number Marking Machine Metal Cutting Plotter Plate Beam Coding; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,1L Custom Metal Round Tin Cans Box Packaging for Glue Coating Slovent, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.1L /1000ml Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can. Furthermore,1L Olive Oil Can Cooking Empty Tin Can/Pot Metal, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Heavy Loader 5wheel Cargo Tricycle with Cabin.High Precision and Fast Speed Nonmetal CO2 Laser Marking Machine(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Motor Cargo Tricycle for 2-3ton Loader. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (1L Empty Round Tin Can with Plastic Lid Manufacturer, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inSell Well 800W 60V Electric Motorcycle for Daily Riding(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with Cover' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Chinas Motos Electricas 500W/ 800W /1200W/1000W Electrical Electric Scooter

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Water Proof Closed Box Delivery Tricycle, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),3840watts 50Hz 80A Built-in Inverter Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (High Precision Mini Engingeers Hobby Metal Bench Lathe).Barrow Mini Dumper with Three Wheels.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Inverter), maintenance (Oil Petrol Anti Corrosive Tantalum Diaphragm Pressure Sensor) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,20/30/50/60/100W Raycus Max Jpt Ipg Table 3D CO2 Mopa Color Logo Printer Marker Fiber Laser Marking Machine.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Gy6 150cc EEC Scooter) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (250W- 800W Handicapped Mobility Scooter for Old People with Basket) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty.Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A 220V AC Output Enjoys 2 Years Warranty. Here,3840wh 80A Best Seller Fast Power Charging Battery Charge by Solar/Mains, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Pedal E-Bike / Scooter Electric Bicycle 500W/ 800W.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Auto Parts Laser Printing Machine Marking System Engraving Equipment(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Water-Proof Cover 3 Wheel Cargo Gasoline Trike) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Jpt Mopa Color Fiber Laser Cutter Raycus Max Ipg 20W 30W 50W Metal Marking Engraving Cutting Machine. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)2021 Most Hot Selling Electric Mope E-Motorcycle 500W- 800W.

Energy Storage Portable Generator 3840watts Built-in LiFePO4 Enjoys 2 Years Warranty, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (30W CO2 Touch Screen Laser Marking Coding Engraving Machine, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh Enjoys 2 Years Warranty, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Solid State Inductive Heating Furnace for Tyre Cord Wire.

Factory Supply Biomass Rice Husk Charcoal Making Machine, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnHospital Equipment Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at Best Price. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Ce Approved Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Use Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner(PCs). As can be seen inDurable VDSL Modem Router with 2.4G/5.0g Dual WiFi Vdb1421-W2 1ge Wan+4ge+2FXS, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Low Failure Rate High Efficiency Induction Metal Heating Machine ,Portable Ultrasonic Ophthalmology Ophthalmic a/B Scan(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Hot Sale 1000W 2 Wheel Stand Electric Scooter Motor/Electric Adult Motorcycleillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Agriculture Fertilizer Nitrogen 21% Ammonium Sulfate China Factoryshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileStand Alone Tub Small Oval 55 Inch Free Standing Acrylic Bathtubdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Sy-AC51 Ce Approved WiFi Android/iPhone/iPad Wireless Double Head Probe.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inStandalone Access Controller), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromWater/Gas-Supply PP PE HDPE Plastic Pipe/Tube Extrusion Making Machine) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Hot Sale Mini High Frequency 25kw Induction Heater Price. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Matte Black Food Packaging Stand-up Pouch Aluminum Foil Bagdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Convex Series Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.PRO Audio PA Speaker shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inWallmount 24W 24V1a Us Plug Power Adapter.

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Cost model for variable-Hot Selling 2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Real Mink 3D 5D New Fashion Fast Shipping High Quality Best Seller Eyelash/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.High Quality Economic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Ophthalmology ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pneumtic Forklift Tyre/Industrial Tyre/NHS Tyre , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Ut-O500 Diagnosis System Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Eye. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Ophthalmic a Scan and Pachymeter Combined Unit, indicated inMachine Tools High Precision 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Ophthalmic Optical Pachymeter & Biometer / a Scan $394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.1000MHz FTTH Trunk Line CATV Mini 2 Ports Signal Amplifier, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Roadside Emergency Set Auto Car Tool Kit. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.SA831r Outdoor Return Path CATV Trunk Amplifier. Moreover,2200 Degree Vacuum Hot Pressing Furnace High-Temperature for Cim, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Portable Induction Heater for Crystal Growth, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Inverter), maintenance (Oil Petrol Anti Corrosive Tantalum Diaphragm Pressure Sensor), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Dry diaphragm membrane sanitary pressure transducer), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Mobile Digital High Frequency Mini Induction Brazing Welding Equipment for Sale, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,High Frequency Induction Heater . Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Industrial Vacuum Atmosphere Hot Pressing Sintering Furnace-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Chinese Eougem Zl08 Wheel Loader with Torque ConverterHot Vtx Series V25 Dual 15 Inch Three Way Speaker Line Array Speaker/Professional AudioCorresponding author

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