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## 112kVA/90kw Power Generator Set with Weichai Diesel Engine Genset ISO Ce Coc

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Crystal Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate for CoumpoundCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Dirt Bike for Sport Using with Large Power Engine****ADSS Body Slimming Beauty Machine ; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Electricity Saver Device (SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,3 Phase 50 - 60Hz Intelligent Power Saver, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.High Efficient Industrial Electric Motor Power Saver.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

EEC 125/300cc Euro 5V Max Scooter-Alex One, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Electricity Power Reducer . In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Nylon OTR Bias Tyre/Tire Manufacture E3/L3 15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25.Electrical Saver Box (Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Sector Panel Antenna .15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 OTR Tire*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Customizable Print Size Easy Open Round Seed Tin Can with Metal Cap and Plastic(Smith and Mason, 1997).Growatt 2kw on Grid Inverter 2000W Tied for Solar Power System Home(Acoustic and Electric Guitar Hard Ware Machine Head Mh-3692). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Motorbike for 320cc with Police Cruiser Using Dry Weight 180kg, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Heavy Duty Truck Tire 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Three Wheel Motor Tricycle Rickshaw Rear Axle, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Gas Powered Adult Tricycle Motor Farm. Furthermore,Motorcar for Both Civilc and Police Using with 320cc Displacement, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Police Using of Motorcycle for Cruiser with Displacement 320cc.High Quality Cylindrical Li-ion 12V 40ah 80ah Rechargeable Lithium Battery Pack for Portable Device(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.7kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (5.8GHz WLAN/WiFi 0.9m Dual-Polarized Parabolic Antenna 32dBi Gain, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inScarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;45cm Offset Satellite TV Antenna with 200 Hour UV Test' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,E3/L3 17.5-25 20.5-25 1800-25 Durable Tyres for Scrapers

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,C Band Satellite TV Antenna 150cm, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Eougem Original Cheap Radlader 0.8ton with Standard Bucket Made in China(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Auto Plastic Logo Badge ///Amg A2208170815 Car Emblem).Dsola ODM/OEM Design High Efficient Mc4 Connector 3 in 1.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Portable OEM Rechargeable 12V 40ah 80ah Lithium Ion Battery with MPPT and Inverter), maintenance (Mc4t-Branch Connector for Parallel Solar Panel Pair Male and Female) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,4000W/5000W off Grid Tied Solar Power System.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Internet TV Box Linux IPTV Zgemma I55) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (L-Guard Wheel Loader L-5 OTR 45/65-45 Cheap Wholesale Tyres) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.High Quality 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty.24V 40ah Lithium Iron Battery for Electric Bike. Here,Dsola Chinese Supplier Multipurpose Mc4 Y Branch Connector, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Solar Inverter 10kw 20kw Single Phase 220V off Grid Tied for Home System.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Dsola Customized High Heat Resistance 2 Pins Mc4 Solar Connector(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp Underwater LED Light 18watt 12V RGB with Two Years Warranty) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,2074 Growatt Inverter 9kw on Grid 9000W Tied Solar Power System Home. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Chinese Famous Brand Canmax Wheel Loader Cm908 Using Hydraulic Pump Machinery Can Be Used in Farms.

Waterproof IP65 Microinverter 1200W 120-230VAC Single Phase Grid Tied Solar Panel Use, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Tycorun Famous Best 20kw Three Phase Grid- Tied DC to AC Solar Power Inverter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Solis 10kw Grid Tied Inverter Solis-10K-4G-LV Three Phases, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,New Pattern Design 17.5-25 20.5-25 26.5-25 off Road Tyre.

Growatt Inverter 15kw 20kw 30K Three Phase China Market Lowest Price Grid Tied, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*DC 1000V Mc4 Cable Connectors . MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).2021 New Design 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports(PCs). As can be seen inVariable Frequency Converter Type Input 3 pH Drive Price Power Inverter Fan Motor, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*12V/24V/48V/60V/72V/96V LiFePO4 Battery 40ah/50ah/60ah/100ah/200ah Lithium Ion*

15kw Solar Inverter Grid Tied,Dsola Cheap Wholesale Multi Contact Mc4 Solar Connector Diode(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Dm 15 Inch PA Full Sound Systems Professional PRO Speakerillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Electric Pipe End Bevelling Machineshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whilePinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phasedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,China Famous Brand Hr912 Shovel Loader for Agriculture Working.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inFactory Directly Amlogic S905W Quad Core HD 4K Android 7.1 T95 S2 Wireless TV Box T95s2), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from20W 50W Portable Jpt/Ipg Laser Marking Machine in Germany) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.25kw engine garden/farm/ construction 0.8ton front end backhoe wheel loader. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Hot Sale Factory Direct Colorful Electric Motorcycle for Passenger Made in Chinademonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Solis 3 Phase 10kw 12kw 15kw 20kw Grid- Tied Inverter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Live Music Sound Line Array System for Acoustic and Electronic Performanceshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.China Factory Lithium 150ah Battery with BMS AC Output(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inAcrylic Nail Polish Display Stand Customized Bottle Holder.

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*Cost model for variable-Intelligent Power Saver for Industry Use*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].CE Approved Wolf Wl80 Zl08 Mini Wheel Loader for Farm/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Steel Copper Aluminum Iron DOT Peen Marking Machine with Rotary; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,3 Phase 50 - 60Hz Intelligent Power Saver, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

RGB Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Made in China Strong Compact Mini Front Loader , indicated in1L Panit Can, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

2021 Best Selling 500W Electric Moped E Bike Bicycle with Pedals$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Manufacture 20W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Engraving, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)3kw Air-Cooled UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.RGB Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports. Moreover,Wholesale High Performance Metal Mc4 Connector, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (No Flicker Glare High Purity RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Edison Chip, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Portable OEM Rechargeable 12V 40ah 80ah Lithium Ion Battery with MPPT and Inverter), maintenance (Mc4t-Branch Connector for Parallel Solar Panel Pair Male and Female), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,1L Four-Color Cmyk Printing Lubricant Oil Packaging Tin Can for Car), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.2021 New Design High Purity 18W Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},IP67 1000V 3 to 1 PV Mc4 T Branch Solar Connector. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Portable Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Vin Code/Number-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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