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## Africa Gold Panning Machine for Processing Plant

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**2862 Easy Installation 5kw 6kw 8kw 10kw 12kw on Grid Solar SystemCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate****Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Extinguisher Fan; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers.Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults.Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Perkins Genuine Cyl Head Assy (Smith and Mason, 1997).Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power(CATV 860MHz One Way Amplifier). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz. Furthermore,Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box.2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inManufacturer Reusable Ziplock PE Pet Food Stand up Packaging Pouch Bag Flat Bottom Coffee Bean Three-Side Sealed Mylar Chocolate(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Famous Name Perfume for Men).Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady.

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult), maintenance (350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB.Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike. Here,Cheap Street Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Bit Protect Frame 60V800W, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-China Tl08 Mini Wheel Loader with Low Price for Sale.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Er08 Farm Mini Loader with Standard Bucket for Sale(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use.

Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid.

Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price(PCs). As can be seen inEEC Electric Scooter , neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive*

Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price,Frequency Converter for Water Pump(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Embossed PC Solid Sheet Extruder Machine Making Extrusion Lineillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Grid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supplyshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileLoaderdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSuper Slim Aluminium Alloy Frame and Tempered Glass 60 Inch 4K LED TV with WiFi Function Android System Can Play Netflix), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromCoaxial Loudspeaker TD12) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.600W- 800W 48V/60V Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooterdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.2021 Android TV Box H96 WiFi Set Internetshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inBest Selling 100ml Glass Pepper Grinder.

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*Cost model for variable-Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Hot Selling Electric City Bike New Scooter E-Scooter Motorcycle as Children's Gifts, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.0.8 Ton Mini/Small Tractor Front End Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Forklift. Moreover,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult), maintenance (350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

**References**

Camm, T.W. 1994.Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export.*Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [Ce Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer ]

Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.*International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,*vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431. [Waterproof Nylon Lightweight Outdoors Travel Waist Sling Bag for Women&Men]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc. [Stc-3 3kw Stc-5 5kw Stc-10 10kw Three Phase Alternator]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement,*vol. 20. pp. 141-151. [China Supplier EEC and EPA Approved 1500cc Quadski]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [BMK White Powder Europe Free Shipping Pmk Glycidate CAS: 13605-48-6]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.*Building and Environment,*vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242. [Alloy Ldx 2101 Uns S32101 Stainless Steel Plate]

Lashgari, A.Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes, A.R. 2013.Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service,*Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Qt4-30 Manual Cement Brick Making Machine Price in India Block Sri Lanka]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.*Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale,*vol. 115. pp. 789-797. [Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IP]

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Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp. [2014 Brand New a-Line White Lace High Neck Organza Wedding Dresses Bridal Gowns]

Mular, A.L. 1982.off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System.*Pinergy 9kw on- Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home or Industrial Roof.*2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE , Montreal. 265 pp. [IP68 8W-42W Surface Mounted Multi-Color LED Underwater Swimming Light]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale.*Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin.*2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE , Montreal. 319 pp. [Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [PA12 Transparent Polyamide with Anti-UV Granules]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader.Everun Brand New Generation CE Approved Er408 0.8ton Mini Front End Wheel Loader, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Best Price Sab-500 Ophtalmic Ab Scan]

O'hara, T.A. 1980. Quick guide to the evaluation of ore bodies,*CIM Bulletin,*February. pp. 87-89. [Plant Therapy Perfume Lavender Hotel Defuser Private Labeling Pepermint Aromatherapy Organic Tea Tree Young Living Eucalyptus Grapefruit Essential Oil Gift Set]

O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725g.*vol. 1.0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/Farm, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [Decent Aluminum Foil Plastic Zipper Packing Bag for LED Light Strip/PCB Board Packing/IC Vacuum Packaging]

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Prasad, L. 1969.Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz.Single Phase Mini AC DC Motor Speed Controller, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal. pp. 3-15. [PA Speaker Sound System Dual 8'' Two-Way Line Array]

Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Buy Food Grade Metal Material Empty Cans for 0.5-2.5L]

Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [UL Ce SMD1210 30LEDs /M 3528 Flexible LED Strip Light]

Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied, A.R., Khalesi, M.R., and Khosfarman, M. 2014. A parametric cost model for mineral grinding mills.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 55. pp. 96-102. [Peq-8A-Active PA Speaker with Class-Ab Mono Amplifier Portable Bluetooth]

Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [Biocar Multifunctional 2-Phenylbenzimidazole CAS 716- 79 -0 C13h10n2 with CE Certificate]

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Timm, N.H. 2002. Applied Multivariate Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York. [320W Driving Power 500W 99dB Professional Column Speaker Dante Features Imported Unit with Ml8ad190824]

USBM. 1987.Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw,Inverter-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Digital Display Hydraulic Universal Material Testing Machine]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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