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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



20W/30W/50W/70W/100W White/Black/Color Fiber Laser Marking Machine Price /Fiber Engraver/LaserCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Pharmaceutical Chemicals Cefodizime Sodium CAS 86329- 79 -52021 Best Sale 150cc Adults 4 Wheeler Petrol Power Racing Quad; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Hot Selling Ceftriaxone Sodium CAS 104376- 79 -6 Top Quality(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,99% High Quality Nootropics Drugs Huperzine a 102518- 79 -6 Hupa USA Factory Fast Delivery, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Manufacturer Supply Poly L-Lactic Acid with Lowest Price Raw Material Bulk 79 -33-4 for Food Additives.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Crovell Factory Supply High Quality CAS 79 -57-2 Oxytetracycline, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Fast Delivery CAS 525- 79 -1 6-Furfurylaminopurine 99%. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Peptide Cosmetics CAS 155149- 79 -4 Capixyl.China O-Phthalaldehyde Opa CAS 643- 79 -8 Raw Crystal 643798 Supplier(Khalesiet al.,2015).

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Thirty-seven major flotation machines (10inch Speaker for Music Bar PRO Audio Sound System, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inHigh Quality Benzaldehyde with Fast Delivery(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;10inch Professional Karaoke Speaker for Luxury Room' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,10inch Loudspeaker PA Speaker PRO Audio

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,10 " Professional Home Theater Stage Performance Audio Video PA Trolley IR Bluetooth Active Speaker with Multimedia Heavy Bass and Big Power, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),10 Inch Powerful PRO Wood PA Bluetooth Audio Mixer Speaker(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Beading Sash Bridal Gown Ruffles Organza Pink Wedding Dress).Single 10 Inch Active Speaker PS10r2 PA System.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Professional Audio Speaker Dual 10 Inch Neodymium Line Array), maintenance (Stand up Plastic Bag with Zipper Aluminum Laminated Container Food Packaging) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Food Grade Packaging Custom Print Laminated Stand up Bag.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Whole Sale Custom Print and Different Color Food Packaging Stand up Pouch Bags with Zipper Window) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Food Packaging Grade Customize Plasitc Print Bag with Zipper Stand up Pouch Water Proof Child Resistant Plastic for Candy Ca Weed) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Food Packaging Bag.High Quality Coffee /Candy/Weed /Hemp Plastic Container. Here,Water Proof Child Coffee /Candy/Weed Plastic Container, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-10 Inch Coaxial Speaker Professional Driver " Line Array Subwoofer.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Electronics ESD Moisture Barrier Aluminum Foil Bag Shielding Anti-Static Plastic for Electronic Parts(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Donbn Dz- 10 Two Way Full Range Professional KTV Speaker) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Professional Speaker Double 10'' Neodymium Line Array. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)10'' Neodymium Coaxial Speaker. 250W & 60W Power Rating PA Audio..

4-Chloro-4'-Methylbenzophenone High Quality Products CAS 5395- 79 -9, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (55" HD 1080P Commercial LED Screen Video Wall LCD Display, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

A+ grade LCD wall panel surveillance high brightness screen, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Seamless 1920*1080 Pixel High Resolution LCD Monitor 49".

PA 10 -35W 5.25'' Sound Ceiling Speaker, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnSamsung LTI550HN16 1920X1080P screen monitor LCD video wall. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).46''55''65''75'' High Quality Double Sided LCD Touch Screen Monitor Bus Shelter Advertising Media Player(PCs). As can be seen inEmpty Canister White Metal Round Packaging Cans Box Tea Tins, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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High Efficiency 10inch Transducers PS10 for Best PA Speaker,Active 10 " Line Array with Calss-D Amplifier and Built-in DSP(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Mylar Child Resistant Waterproof Plastic Bag with Zipperillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Maintence Grease Gun 21V LCD Real Time Information Reading Hand Toolshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whilein Line Water Cooled Diesel Engine for Generator with Good Qualitydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,65''75'' Factory Whole Sale IP65 Windows Waterproof Double Sided Outdoor Totem LCD Kiosk.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inDisposable Mask Face Blue High Quality), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromChinas Motos Electricas 500W/ 800W /1200W/1000W Electrical Electric Scooter ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Professional 10 Inches Rcf Aluminum PA Speaker Frame. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Velashape Slimming Cellulite Removal Body Sculpting Fat Machinedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Peq- 10 Dwb PA Speaker with Class-Ab Mono Amplifier Portable Bluetooth[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.PRO Audio 10'' Neodymiun Line Array Speaker System Falante(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in75 Inch Super Screen Ultra Slim LED TV Dled Android Smart.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Double 10inch Line Array System Box /min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Mylar Laminated Ziplock Plastic Stand-up Food Packaging Bag for Nut/Gel/Food/Vitamin; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,99% High Quality Nootropics Drugs Huperzine a 102518- 79 -6 Hupa USA Factory Fast Delivery, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Chin Top Supplier Supply L- $394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Pharmaceutical Industry CAS 643- 79 -8 O-Phthalaldehyde, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Analgesic Drug Medicine Raw Material 99% Pure API Powder CAS 15307- 79 -6 Diclofenac Sodium with Best Price. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.CAS 79 -14-1 70% Glycolic Acid Powder. Moreover,Anti-Wrinkle Cosmetic Grade PRO-Xylane CAS-439685- 79 -7, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Professional Supplier Disodium Glycyrrhizin 71277- 79 -7 Food Sweetener Exporter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Professional Audio Speaker Dual 10 Inch Neodymium Line Array), maintenance (Stand up Plastic Bag with Zipper Aluminum Laminated Container Food Packaging), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Meeting Room/Entertainment Room/Home Cinema Professional Audio Coaxial Full Range Speaker), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Raw Material 99% Tretinoin Powder/Retinoic Acid CAS 302- 79 -4, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Bloom Tech API Ceftriaxone Sodium 104376- 79 -6. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.St-10 10kw St-12 12kw St-15 15kw St-20 20kw Generator Alternator-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [PC Aluminum Frame Trolley Luggage for 20" Travle Suitcase]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [Stadium Banquet Hall Theater PRO Audio PA Speaker Line Array System]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [Bulksupplement Vitamin a Acetate 0.5miu Ws Feed Grade CAS No 127-47-9]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Pharmaceutical Chemicals Cefodizime Sodium CAS 86329- 79 -5, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Custom Printed Food Grade Ziplock Plastic Pouch Packaging Bag.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Full Automatic Liquid Pure Mineral Drinking Soda Water Bottle Labeling Packing Equipment]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.PA /Pet/PE/Kraft Laminated Printing Stand up Pouch Food Grade, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.Building and Environment,vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242.         [16/24 Channel RF Combiner Passive Mixer]

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Loh, H.P., Lyons, J., and White, C.W. 2002. Process equipment cost estimation, final report. National Energy Technoloy Center, DOE/NETL-2002/1169.         [Sy-A041 Medical Equipment Portable Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scanner]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.Thermoforming Nylon/Ny Frozen Chicken Meat Packing Vacuum Sealer Bag,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [Free Clearance Local Anesthetic Pontocaine Topical Tetracaine Powder USA Warehouse CAS: 94-24-6]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [3 pH 37kw Variable Frequency Drive with AC Input Motor Driver]

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O'hara, T.A. 1980. Quick guide to the evaluation of ore bodies,CIM Bulletin,February. pp. 87-89.         [Rubber Chemicals Additives Accelerator Tmtd]

O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.10 Inch High Quality PA Speaker 10tbx100.vol. 1.PA Audio System 5" 10 -35W Ceiling Speaker, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424.         [Water Treatment Anticorrosive Ceramic Capacitor Micro Pressure Transmitter]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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