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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion LineCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.2021 Best Sale 150cc Adults 4 Wheeler Petrol Power Racing Quad****Jwell Raincoat TPU Film Extrusion Machine; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Closed Canvas Box 2 Ton Cargo Tricycle(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Sanyou 125cc Efi System with Delivery Box Gas Scooter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.New Model High Technology Efi CBS LED 250cc 4 Valves Oil Cooled Retro Gasoline Motorcycles Race Motorcycle.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

28dBi Gain 0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna Best Design for Sale, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,250cc Oil Cooling Dirt Bike with EPA. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Sanyou Slg New Efi System 125cc -150cc Gasoline Scooter.250cc Gasoline off Road Motorbike(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 28dBi.Wholesale 90cc 110cc 125cc 150cc off Road Gasoline Go Cart*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Professional Loudspeaker 10'' Neodymium Magnet(Smith and Mason, 1997).150cc 200cc 250cc ATV Quad Bike for Adults(HPM766 Dry diaphragm membrane sanitary pressure transducer). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)4 Stroke Buggy 150cc ATV, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Pool Lamp with Ce RoHS; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,The Newest 110cc 125cc 150cc Toyota Mini Buggy , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat IP68 LED Wall Mounted Pool Lamp with Ce RoHS. Furthermore,High Quality 18W Underwater LED Lamp IP68 Swimming Pool Lights Wall Mounted with Two Years Warranty, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-0.4m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 23dBi.Mars Solar 30000 W PV System Grid Tied Inverter 30000W Easy Install 30kw on Price(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.5 Wheels Gasoline Cargo Tricycle with Front Cabin. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (IP68 Waterproof High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Pool Light, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inGood Performance Virgin Transparent PA12 Granules/Pellets/Resin Equivalent with Tr90 for Glasses Frame(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Sofar Grid Tied 100kw Inverter 3 Phase 380V 400V 80kw 125kw 136kw on' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,L5s Underground Ming Tyres Smooth Pattern 12.00-24 17.5-25 18.00-25 26.5-25

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,150cc Quad 4WD ATV for Adults, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Light Source Be Glued IP68 LED Underwater for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Interior Tile Ceramic Sri Lanka Tiles Traders Marble for Project).IP68 Waterproof High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Underwater Pool Light with Edison Chip.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty), maintenance (5kw Grid Tied Solar Inverter Three Phase for Home Use) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,High Quality Solar PV Grid- Tied Inverters.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Pneumatic Marking Sw-P) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.2 Ton Loader 3 Wheel Cargo Tricycle.Grid Tied Inverter 3kw. Here,5kw Solar PV Kit Power Gird Tied Inverter, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Factory Mining Tyre.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Low Frequency Solar Inverter Hybrid Mode Grid- Tied and Store Power(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-150cc Front Cabin Cargo Tricycle) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,OTR G2 Grader Tubeless Tyre 17.5-25. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)1L Metal Screw Top Round Machine Oil Tank.

Customized Modern Design Metal Oil Tin Can 1L Empty Storage Container, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (E3/L3 Pattern Bias Loader Radical Pneumatic Solid Grader OTR Tyre , Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Pneumtic Forklift Tyre/Industrial Tyre/NHS Tyre , R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,1L Paint Tin Cans/Empty Food Grade Can with Lid.

17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 26.5-25 29.5-25 OTR Tire for Loaders, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*20.5-25/29.5-25/23.5-25/14.00-24/7.50-16 New E-3/L-3 Loader OTR Bias Tyre. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lights(PCs). As can be seen inDual 10inch PA Audio Line Array Speaker Box System, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*China Electric Tricycle 350W 500W 800W for Adult*

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Metronome and Tunershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileHD Lace Frontal Human Hair 5X5 Closure Frontals Straight Bundles 613 Blonddemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Pneumatic Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Marking Coder.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCute Mini Fruit Custom Metal Soft Enamel Lapel Badge Pin Brooch with Backing Card), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromDah Solar 100kw System Price on Grid Tied Inverter for Commercial Use) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Pneumatic Frame Number Marking Machine Metal Cutting Plotter Plate Beam Coding. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.6-Cylinder Diesel Engine Water Coolant for Electric Generator Setdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,1L Custom Metal Round Tin Cans Box Packaging for Glue Coating Slovent[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Recording Studio Equipment Vera Series Super Power Speaker Boxshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.1L /1000ml Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in65 Inch Fashion Super-Slim TV and Android Smart 4K UHD Television for House Hotel.

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*Cost model for variable-1L Olive Oil Can Cooking Empty Tin Can/Pot Metal*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Heavy Loader 5wheel Cargo Tricycle with Cabin/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.High Precision and Fast Speed Nonmetal CO2 Laser Marking Machine; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Sanyou 125cc Efi System with Delivery Box Gas Scooter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Motor Cargo Tricycle for 2-3ton Loader. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.1L Empty Round Tin Can with Plastic Lid Manufacturer, indicated inDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Bdll150s6571, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with Cover$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Solar & Mains 3840wh 80A 220V Outlet Battery for Appliances with Rated Power Under 1500W, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Gy6 -125/ 150ccformaular. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Double Chasis Cargo Tricycle. Moreover,Euro 5 Gy6 -50cc 4t Moped, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Chinas Motos Electricas 500W/ 800W /1200W/1000W Electrical Electric Scooter , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty), maintenance (5kw Grid Tied Solar Inverter Three Phase for Home Use), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Water Proof Closed Box Delivery Tricycle), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.3840watts 50Hz 80A Built-in Inverter Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Barrow Mini Dumper with Three Wheels. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Inverter-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

1GHz Outdoor Bi-Directional CATV AmplifierIP68 Waterproof High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Underwater Pool Light with Edison ChipCorresponding author