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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Satellite Ts Encryption HD Receiver with Multiplexing FunctionCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer****Coaxial Loudspeaker TD12; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady.Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

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**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in600W- 800W 48V/60V Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooter(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Jkmd Series Multi-Rope Friction Mining Hoist).Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Frequency Converter for Water Pump), maintenance (Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter.Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult. Here,Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Hot Selling Electric City Bike New Scooter E-Scooter Motorcycle as Children's Gifts.

Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (0.8 Ton Mini/Small Tractor Front End Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Forklift, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks.

Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base(PCs). As can be seen inVera12 New Design 800watts 12" Audio System Line Array, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box*

Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export,Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter(CSFM) is presented here as an example.8mm Thickness 316ss IP68 RGB DC12V 18W External Control Mode LED Swimming Pool Lightillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Ce Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileStc-3 3kw Stc-5 5kw Stc-10 10kw Three Phase Alternatordemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inFactory Price CNC Cutting and Engraving Machine 1326 with), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromAlloy Ldx 2101 Uns S32101 Stainless Steel Plate) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.1L High End Glass Vodka Wine Bottle with Matte Black Finishdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IPshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHand Hydraulic Hose Crimping Machine Light Machinery.

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*Cost model for variable-Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader. Moreover,Everun Brand New Generation CE Approved Er408 0.8ton Mini Front End Wheel Loader, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725g, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Frequency Converter for Water Pump), maintenance (Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/Farm), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Low Frequency Inverter AC Drive, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Single Phase Mini AC DC Motor Speed Controller-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Factory Wholesale Tx3 S905X3 Quad Core Bt 4.1 Great Arabic 64bit 4GB 64GB TV Box Android.*Hot Cheap Electric Scooter for Two Seats 60V800W20ah with USB Charger.*Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycle, Montreal. 319 pp. [Articulated Mini Wheel Loader Er08 Telescopic Boom]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Power Saver for Industrial Customized Supported Android 9.0 X96 Air Media BoxCorresponding author