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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**18" Die Cast P-Auido Style Aluminum FrameCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Laptop Battery for DELL Latitude E7270 E7470 R1V85 Mc34y 0mc34y 451-Bbsx J60j5****800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.220V 80A 50Hz Portable Lithium Battery Generator Charger with 3.8kwh Charging Appliances Rated Power Under 1500W Outdoor & Indoor Use(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Solar & Mains Storage Battery Charger with Inverter to 80AC 3840wh, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

3840watts AC Output Built-in Inverter 80A Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Flying Online Fiber Laser Marking Machine with Conveyor Belt. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,3840watts AC Output Built-in Inverter Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate.Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3840wh 80A 220V Enjoys 2 Years Warranty(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Fiber Laser Marking Color Printing Machine Price 30W 50W 100W Mopa.Hot Sale 0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gian 28dBi*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for VFD Ultra-Low-Noise Delixi 55kw 720va Variable Frequence Inverter(Smith and Mason, 1997).381323 80mAh 3.7V Battery for Earphone Campact Lithium Polymer(White Crystalline Powder Tiletamine HCl Bulk Price 14176-50-2 USA Veterinary Anesthetic). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)IN-BA1 Ultrasonic Diagnostic Automatic High Effective Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).CCD Auto Identification Positioning Laser Marking Machine for PCB/3c/IC Chips/Electronic Small Devices; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,100W Full Enclosed Fiber Laser Marking Machine with Safe Cover, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.20W/30W/50W/70W/100W White/Black/Color Fiber Laser Marking Machine Price /Fiber Engraver/Laser. Furthermore,for HP Laptop Mc06 11.1V 4400mAh 49wh Li-on Battery Envy M7-N000, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-600W- 800W 48V/60V Lead-Acid Battery Electric Scooter.Best Selling Electric Scooter Mini 800W (SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.150cc Automatic Racing Sports Exclusive Design ATV . However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (High Quality Cheap 200cc and 150cc Farm Utility ATV, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in12" Loudspeaker as Monitor Speaker System 12 Inch Powerful Coaxial(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;1GHz Outdoor Bi-Directional CATV Amplifier' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,3kw Liquid Cooling UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,He-1000ap Ophthalmic Ultrasound a Scan Biometer Pachymeter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),IN-AC5L ICEN WiFi Wireless Linear Ultrasound Probe Scanner(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Yishan 220HP Forestry hydraulic dozer TY220F with ROPS cab).Sanland 860MHz 34dB Gain CATV Forward Push-Pull Amplifier Module .

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Bi-Directional Transmission Distribution Amplifier SA822), maintenance (Encryption Ts Satellite IRD) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Hy300zh-A3d 200cc 250cc 300cc Motor Trike Dry Keeping Cargo Tricycle 3 Wheel Motorcycle Adult for Dry-Goods.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Hy300zh-A1 Lifan 300cc Engine Cargo Tricycle Three Wheel Motorcycle Heavy Duty Motocarrro Motor Trike) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (2021 Best Sale 150cc Adults 4 Wheeler Petrol Power Racing Quad) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Closed Canvas Box 2 Ton Cargo Tricycle.Sanyou 125cc Efi System with Delivery Box Gas Scooter. Here,New Model High Technology Efi CBS LED 250cc 4 Valves Oil Cooled Retro Gasoline Motorcycles Race Motorcycle, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-28dBi Gain 0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna Best Design for Sale.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.250cc Oil Cooling Dirt Bike with EPA(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Sanyou Slg New Efi System 125cc -150cc Gasoline Scooter) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,250cc Gasoline off Road Motorbike. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 28dBi.

Wholesale 90cc 110cc 125cc 150cc off Road Gasoline Go Cart, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (150cc 200cc 250cc ATV Quad Bike for Adults, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}4 Stroke Buggy 150cc ATV, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Pool Lamp with Ce RoHS.

The Newest 110cc 125cc 150cc Toyota Mini Buggy , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat IP68 LED Wall Mounted Pool Lamp with Ce RoHS. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).High Quality 18W Underwater LED Lamp IP68 Swimming Pool Lights Wall Mounted with Two Years Warranty(PCs). As can be seen in5GHz High Power Outdoor Wireless CPE Ap by Factory Isigal, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*0.4m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gain 23dBi*

Mars Solar 30000 W PV System Grid Tied Inverter 30000W Easy Install 30kw on Price,5 Wheels Gasoline Cargo Tricycle with Front Cabin(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Indoor DJ Stage Two Way Active Line Array Cabinet Boxillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Energy Storage Portable Generator 3840watts Built-in LiFePO4 Enjoys 2 Years Warrantyshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileYog Motorcycle Spare Parts Electric Starting Motor for Gy6 -80 Gy3-125 Cy6-125 Innova Kazer Jupiterzdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,IP68 Waterproof High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Pool Light.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inBakery Equipment Hot Air Convection Oven with 10 Plug Trays Retarder Proofer), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromCheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Sofar Grid Tied 100kw Inverter 3 Phase 380V 400V 80kw 125kw 136kw on*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.New Mini Willys Jeep Available on 110cc. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Zl08 Mini Small Garden Farm Tractors Compact Front End Wheel Loaderdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,150cc ATV for Adults Lmatv-150hm[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hzshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.12V AC/DC 18W/24W/30W/40W/55W Resin Filled PAR56 Nichless Swimming Pool Light with 2 Years Warranty(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inTsa Luggage Strap Approved 3-Dial Combination Lock Adjustable Suitcase Travel Belt.

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*Cost model for variable-High Quality Resin Filled AC12V PAR56 & DC12V Flat LED Wall Underwater Light with Edison Chip*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].L5s Underground Ming Tyres Smooth Pattern 12.00-24 17.5-25 18.00-25 26.5-25/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.150cc Quad 4WD ATV for Adults; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Solar & Mains Storage Battery Charger with Inverter to 80AC 3840wh, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.5kw Grid Tied Solar Inverter Three Phase for Home Use, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)High Quality Solar PV Grid- Tied Inverters. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip. Moreover,Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Pneumatic Marking Sw-P, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (2 Ton Loader 3 Wheel Cargo Tricycle, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Bi-Directional Transmission Distribution Amplifier SA822), maintenance (Encryption Ts Satellite IRD), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Grid Tied Inverter 3kw), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.5kw Solar PV Kit Power Gird Tied Inverter, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Factory Mining Tyre. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Low Frequency Solar Inverter Hybrid Mode Grid- Tied and Store Power-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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150cc 200cc 250cc ATV Quad Bike for Adults, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-1L Empty Round Tin Can with Plastic Lid Manufacturer.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Morin Professional Audio 10inch Line Array Speaker Tw- 10 & Tw-18 Sub]

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USBM. 1987.1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with Cover,Solar & Mains 3840wh 80A 220V Outlet Battery for Appliances with Rated Power Under 1500W-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Super Brightness LED Light Strip SMD2835 Cove Lighting]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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