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## Hwd Series Horizontal Double Scissor Lift Table

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Motorcycle Spare Part Turn Light for Gy6 -150Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.1L Empty Round Brake Fluid Can Boxes****Zl08f Mini/Small Farm Garden Compact Wheel Loader with Lawn Mower; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Pneumatic Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Marking Coder(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Motor King Rear Double Axle Tricycle for Heavy Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Pneumatic Frame Number Marking Machine Metal Cutting Plotter Plate Beam Coding.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

1L Custom Metal Round Tin Cans Box Packaging for Glue Coating Slovent, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,1L /1000ml Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,1L Olive Oil Can Cooking Empty Tin Can/Pot Metal.Heavy Loader 5wheel Cargo Tricycle with Cabin(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

High Precision and Fast Speed Nonmetal CO2 Laser Marking Machine.Motor Cargo Tricycle for 2-3ton Loader*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Transparent Nylon Grilamid PA -7290 Material a Kind of Amorphous PA12(Smith and Mason, 1997).1L Empty Round Tin Can with Plastic Lid Manufacturer(Sulfasalazine CAS No. 599- 79 -1). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with Cover, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Solar & Mains 3840wh 80A 220V Outlet Battery for Appliances with Rated Power Under 1500W; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Gy6 -125/ 150ccformaular, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Double Chasis Cargo Tricycle. Furthermore,Euro 5 Gy6 -50cc 4t Moped, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Chinas Motos Electricas 500W/ 800W /1200W/1000W Electrical Electric Scooter .Water Proof Closed Box Delivery Tricycle(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.3840watts 50Hz 80A Built-in Inverter Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Barrow Mini Dumper with Three Wheels, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inFrequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Inverter' names:

►Oil Petrol Anti Corrosive Tantalum Diaphragm Pressure Sensor: based on 36-foot,20/30/50/60/100W Raycus Max Jpt Ipg Table 3D CO2 Mopa Color Logo Printer Marker Fiber Laser Marking Machine,Gy6 150cc EEC Scooter,250W- 800W Handicapped Mobility Scooter for Old People with Basket, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A 220V AC Output Enjoys 2 Years Warranty, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),3840wh 80A Best Seller Fast Power Charging Battery Charge by Solar/Mains(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (China Weichai Wd10 Series High Speed Marine Diesel).Pedal E-Bike / Scooter Electric Bicycle 500W/ 800W.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Auto Parts Laser Printing Machine Marking System Engraving Equipment), maintenance (Water-Proof Cover 3 Wheel Cargo Gasoline Trike) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Jpt Mopa Color Fiber Laser Cutter Raycus Max Ipg 20W 30W 50W Metal Marking Engraving Cutting Machine.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (2021 Most Hot Selling Electric Mope E-Motorcycle 500W- 800W) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Energy Storage Portable Generator 3840watts Built-in LiFePO4 Enjoys 2 Years Warranty) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.30W CO2 Touch Screen Laser Marking Coding Engraving Machine.with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh Enjoys 2 Years Warranty. Here,Solid State Inductive Heating Furnace for Tyre Cord Wire, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Factory Supply Biomass Rice Husk Charcoal Making Machine.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Hospital Equipment Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at Best Price(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Ce Approved Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Use Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Outdoor/Home Use Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Low Failure Rate High Efficiency Induction Metal Heating Machine .

Portable Ultrasonic Ophthalmology Ophthalmic a/B Scan, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Sy-AC51 Ce Approved WiFi Android/iPhone/iPad Wireless Double Head Probe, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Hot Sale Mini High Frequency 25kw Induction Heater Price.

Convex Series Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Hot Selling 2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer(PCs). As can be seen in5GHz Antenna High Gain 16dBi Panel, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Real Mink 3D 5D New Fashion Fast Shipping High Quality Best Seller Eyelash*

High Quality Economic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Ophthalmology ,Ut-O500 Diagnosis System Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Eye(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Upgraded New Grille Skytone Vera 12inch Top Plus 18inch Sub Line Array PRO Audio DJ Systemillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.China Top Company Supply 3-Bromopropyne CAS 106 96 7 with Best Priceshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileKraft Paper LDPE Supermarket Vegetable Cosmetic Fruit Packaging Bagdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Ophthalmic a Scan and Pachymeter Combined Unit.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in20oz/600ml Stainless Steel Insulated 12oz Coffee Tumbler Chinayetiprice 14oz), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromWall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp Underwater LED Light 18watt 12V RGB with Two Years Warranty) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Ophthalmic Optical Pachymeter & Biometer / a Scan *

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.1000MHz FTTH Trunk Line CATV Mini 2 Ports Signal Amplifier. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Free Sample Local Anesthetic Novocaine Painkiller Cream Solution Procaine CAS: 51-05-8demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Roadside Emergency Set Auto Car Tool Kit[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Fast Delivery CAS 525- 79 -1 6-Furfurylaminopurine 99% with Best Priceshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.SA831r Outdoor Return Path CATV Trunk Amplifier(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inChinese stainless steel food processing membrane valve.

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*Cost model for variable-2200 Degree Vacuum Hot Pressing Furnace High-Temperature for Cim*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Portable Induction Heater for Crystal Growth/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Dry diaphragm membrane sanitary pressure transducer; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Motor King Rear Double Axle Tricycle for Heavy Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Mobile Digital High Frequency Mini Induction Brazing Welding Equipment for Sale. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.High Frequency Induction Heater , indicated inDirect Sale Polyamide PA Resin for Ink, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Industrial Vacuum Atmosphere Hot Pressing Sintering Furnace$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Softel 4u 12 Channel Agile CATV Analog RF Modulator, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Maintence Grease Gun 21V LCD Real Time Information Reading Hand Tool. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Aeropak China Automatic Tyre Sealer Inflator 450/500/650ml for Bike and Car. Moreover,High Quality Melamine MDF with Competitive Price Ce Carb Grade, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Glue E1 Fsc Carb Green/Red Core Plain Mositure-Proof MDF, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Auto Parts Laser Printing Machine Marking System Engraving Equipment), maintenance (Water-Proof Cover 3 Wheel Cargo Gasoline Trike), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,The Best Sale and Low Price Chinese Brake Lathe ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Melamine MDF E1 E0 Carb P2 Grade, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Transparent Ceramics Hot Press Sintering Furnace. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.6mm Raw Plain MDF ISO9001/ Carb for Decoration-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

4inch Outdoor Use Full Range for Public System Wall-Mounted Speaker458 Alicosolar High Efficiency 10kw on Grid Solar System Kit Home with CE/TUV/ISO for UseCorresponding author